of editions of Gondoliers
This document lists, in sometimes excruciating detail, many of the discrepancies I found between my sources as I prepared the Note8 edition of the Gondoliers
orchestra materials. Every such discrepancy, of course,
represents an editorial problem to be resolved. When the solution
seems obvious I might not even list it, unless I'm feeling particularly
snippy that day (Kalmus parts have that effect). It's the
not-so-obvious decisions which make the job interesting, and which I
hope I have documented here, clearly enough to allow conductors and
other researchers to understand my reasoning.
When I see sufficient merit
in multiple solutions, I present variants in the score and parts.
I give the utmost priority to labeling these variants clearly in order to
prevent them from causing confusion under performance conditions.
This Note8 edition ("N") is based on the following sources:
- Steven Lichtenstein's annotated list of vocal score errata "L", found on the G&S Archive website.
Like other Note8 editions, this one is intended to be a performing edition compatible with other widely-distributed editions.
Because I want my parts to
be usable by companies which already own popular editions of the score,
and my score to be usable with other popular editions of the parts, I have included
variants and their associated explanatory notes in both score and
parts. Presenting this information in the parts in particular,
without interfering with performing musicians' needs for legibility
and clarity, is an aspect of editorial artistry at which I hope I
have been successful.
NumberingKP follows Sullivan's usual custom of restarting the song numbers for Act II. Thus the SP/V and N song numbers are all 10 greater than the KP numbers in the second act.
Except as noted, rehearsal letters are consistent between KP, SP/V, and N.
The N score contains all of the dialogue scenes, as a convenience to
the conductor, and also all of the lyrics. The parts contain
selected lyrics for cueing purposes. My source for the dialogue
was the RTF libretto from the G&S Archive website, and my source for the lyrics was SP/V. I urge you
to consult other sources for a more scholarly approach to the
m. 1 KP dynamics are mostly f, some hand-amended to ff. No accent-marks in KP either, except for a few added by hand. So I can't justify the ff or the accents in SP/V.
m. 17 KP dynamics are a mix of ff, f, and none. SP/V says sempre ff, reinforcing its marking from m. 1. Since the effective dynamic energy may be reduced in mm. 13-16 by fewer instruments in lower registers, I favor re-stating the prevailing dynamic here, certainly not increasing it. So N uses f. KP Triangle is marked p, upgraded to f.
m. 19 KP V2 does not slur the three eighth-notes in the second half of
the measure. But since V2 switches here, ever so briefly, from an
accompaniment texture to playing a harmony line under the melody, N
slurs them along with V1 and the high woodwinds. Same mm. 43 and
m. 20 Sloppy cutoffs: KP V1 melody note sustains for four beats
(out of six); KP winds sustain for all six. Same when the same
material recurs at m. 44. But when it recurs again at m. 86,
everyone sustains for six beats. For N it's six beats everywhere.
m. 23 KP Fl2 and Cl2 play melody, not harmony, in the second half of
the measure, unlike m. 19. In the opera, Nº 14 m. 23 is the same,
contrasted with Nº 14 m. 19. SP/V missed this subtle point here in
the Introduction, but got it right in Nº 14.
mm. 48-49 SP/V has staccato dots at the end of the four-note
phrases. Not in KP, OUT. Same mm. 52-53, 90-91, and 94-95.
m. 61 SP/V melody has a duplet of eighth-notes, followed by a
dotted-quarter-note to complete the measure of 6/8. KP Fl1
notates this entire bar as a duplet of quarter-notes, the first
subdivided into eighth-notes, achieving the same effective
rhythm. KP Hb has the same but marks only the two eighth-notes as
a duplet, technically incorrect but still clear. N follows KP
Fl1. m. 65 same.
mm. 97-102 SP/V has all two-bar slurs. KP has a few two-bar
phrases but mostly one-bar. Two-bar seems right, setting up the
bar-and-a-half slurred phrases in mm. 105-106, 109-110, and 113-115.
mm. 127-128 SP/V has cresc. and dim.
hairpins. KP has them too, but only in the Horns part.
Maybe they're authentic and should be extended to the other
instruments, but they don't seem to go with the V1 line, which better
lends itself to a two-bar cresc. and then a two-bar dim. before the Oboe solo. But no source contains anything like that. OUT.
mm. 143-146 The slurs in SP/V inspired me to add ties and slurs to the woodwind parts here, enhancing the long legato phrases. But Schirmer's phrasing doesn't make sense; mine breaks the phrase in a melodically better place.
m. 147 KP Hb is marked staccato for this bar only. But there's no need for Oboe to play staccato when the pizz. strings already create a clipped effect; the oboe can play normal detached notes. OUT.
mm. 151-158 KP upper strings are slurred in 2-bar phrases. SP/V
has 1-bar slurs, as does Nº 9 mm. 57-64. N uses 1-bar slurs.
mm. 163-166 KP V1 has 1-bar slurs. Fl1 has 2-bar slurs, as does Nº 9 mm. 69-72. N uses 2-bar slurs.
m. 169 Piu lento marking is found in KP but not in SP/V. I think Sullivan's real intent here is Rubato, emulating the elaborate Oboe cadenza found here in the other operas. Piu lento accomplishes most of that, IN.
m. 173 KP each string part has the fermata over the rest, so only the
Oboe holds the note. That's quite different from SP/V.
m. 183 Inconsistent rhythms: The beginning of the Gavotte melody
appears in mm. 183-189 and 208-214 of this Introduction, and also in Nº
21, mm. 6-12, 41-47, and 83-89. In Nº 21 the Duke's vocal melody
always four quarter-notes (sometimes subdivided into eighth-notes to
accommodate extra syllables) in the first, third, fifth, and seventh
bars of the pattern, but the accompaniment is always four quarter-notes
(the first two slurred) in the first bar; quarter-note slurred to
eighth-note, eighth-rest, note, rest, note, rest in the third and fifth
bars; and four eight-note, eighth-rest pairs in the seventh bar.
This pattern is exactly the same in SP/V and in KP V1, the only
instrument doubling the vocal melody. I call this pattern of
rhythms for the entire 7-bar passage the "vocal pattern". Then
when the melody is used as a playout-dance in Nº 21, the pattern is the same
again, except that the first bar now has eighth-rests, following the
third- and fifth-bar pattern. I call this modified pattern the
"dance pattern". In the Introduction, it appears that mm. 183-189
follow the "vocal pattern", but mm. 208-214 follow the slightly
different "dance pattern". So for N I have followed these
patterns, more faithfully than KP did. (Staccato
dots are also sprinkled here and there in KP, so inconsistently that
this Editor judges them to be bogus.)
mm. 195-196 several Kalmus parts have cresc. here, including all five strings. Not in SP/V, but it's consistent with the thicker orchestration, and without it the f at m. 198 is unexpected.
m. 197 KP Bassoon 1 has its eighth-note run all slurred. Viola
has the same run as two slurred, two staccato, echoing the melody
instruments in the first half of the measure -- but these markings are
clearly hand-drawn. SP/V has no markings at all. When the
same material occurs in Nº 21, same markings in KP, all slurred in
SP/V. So N follows the majority of the evidence: all slurred.
mm. 198-202 N added long slurs to V1, V2, and Hns per SP/V. KP doesn't have any.
mm. 206-207 The solo notes for Cornets are marked staccato
in KP, and also in SP/V, but eighth-notes separated by eighth-rests are
already quite short enough for this Editor's ear. Playing them staccato as well makes them too clipped. OUT.
m. 221-223 N added long slurs to all instruments per SP/V.
mm. 232-237 The slur-2, dot-1 pattern is consistent in all sources (unusually so in KP), both here and in Nº 21.
m. 233 KP Hn1 doesn't specify any dynamic, implying that p continues, and KP Cts have p explicitly. But these lines would be lost against the ensemble f, so N specifies [f]. Same for the Hn2 entrance at m. 238 and the Tbns entrance at m. 240/241/243.
mm. 243-312 I pieced the "cachucha ending" orchestration together from
the two appearances of this material in the opera, from Dan Kravetz's
fragmentary postings on musescore.com, and from recordings. The
new key presents few problems, but it does send the already-high
Trombone 1 part into the stratosphere, so I re-voiced the Trombones in
mm. 249-253 See comments on Nº 1 mm. 784-788 about divisi in v1 and v2. mm. 257-259 same.
Nº 1. List and learnm. 9 p in several KP makes more sense than no change, i.e. still ff, in SP/V. Makes m. 19 SP/V dim, also in KP Cls, superfluous, OUT.
m. 20 SP/V mp, p in a few Kalmus parts, extended to all instruments as p.
m. 20 N changed Tbn3 cutoff note to dotted quarter to match other brass.
mm. 37-40 Staccato dots in selected KP extended to all woodwinds and
Horns per SP/V. Again m. 42 and for just the second and third
eight-notes in m. 44.
m. 59 cresc. here in KP
strings and in SP/V. N extends it to the winds. No source
specified an arrival-point for this crescendo, so I chose [f] at m. 66, where Cornets enter. Same mm. 115 and 122 second time.
m. 59 KP V2 first F# looks spurious; why would this one note be different from V1? I made them the same.
m. 63 sloppy cutoff: KP Cls and Fgs have dotted quarter; Fls, Hb,
and Hns have quarter-note, eighth-rest; low strings have eighth but
they're pizz. N uses quarter-note, eighth-rest in the winds to match the vocal line. m. 119 same second time.
m. 68 KP Fls and Vs do not include the first eighth-note in the slur
which connects the other five. V2 ends the run from the previous
bar with it. On the repeat, m. 124, Violins are the same but
Flutes slur the whole bar. N made them match the majority.
m. 69 in N, small noteheads are an ossia line for altos and Tessa per L. Same m. 125 second time.
m. 70 KP Ct1 joins many other instruments in doubling the vocal melody,
but only Ct1 has slurs here, so OUT. Later at m. 126, no slurs
but still p, hand-marked as mp, also OUT.
mm. 72-75 KP Vla slurred by half-bars. N changed to full bars to match mm. 128-131 on the repeat, and also to match SP/V.
mm. 74-75 This material was consistently slur 2, dot 1 earlier, but this time it's slurred as shown in all KP and in SP/V.
mm. 98-105 KP V1 and V2 unison but slurred differently. N used a sensible combination of the two versions.
m. 109 SP/V abruptly knocks the dynamic down from f to mp,
a detail also found in KP VC/Cb but not in any other source. Other KP instruments seem to
agree on a full-throated reprise of this melody. The only
exception is Hns, marked pp at m. 111, playing along with Fgs, which are still f. N treats the Hns marking as bogus, OUT.
m. 140 KP V1 last half-beat sixteenth triplet is F-Gb-F, middle note should be G-natural per SP/V.
mm. 140-152 KP Bb Cls are notated in Eb concert. The rest of the
band (strings) is in Bb here, with an extended, accidental-heavy
excursion into Db. So the Clarinet notation is for
convenience. N uses accidentals.
m. 149 L makes a case for changing the ninth V1 note from F to Eb, but concludes that F is correct. I concur.
mm. 152 and 154 Vc and Cb are clearly still pizz. here, but Vla, playing the same material, is clearly arco,
judging by sustained and slurred notes nearby. This situation is
unusual, perhaps justified by Vla doubling the vocal line, as its
rhythm back in m. 138 (for example) shows.
m. 155 L corrects SP/V's fifth V1 note from A-natural to A-flat, citing
the otherwise-identical m. 153. But in KP V1, it's A-natural both
times. What's clear to this Editor is that, while most of the
triplets in this section involve half-steps, the one in m. 144 is a
whole-step, so the half-step pattern is not universal; and that the
keystone of the harmonic resolution of this passage is the
F-dominant-seventh chord in m. 156, which of course prominently
features A-naturals. So in the absence of more sources, it's
A-naturals here for N.
m. 169 Rehearsal letter "I" appears in SP/V (and N) but not in KP.
mm. 169-170 SP/V has staccato dots on all of the eight-notes, not found in KP. OUT.
m. 196 The dotted-quarter-note is marked f sf in SP/V and in selected KP. N replaces this awkward notation with f and an accent-mark. m. 200 accent-mark again, and mm. 243 and 247 same second time.
m. 203 dim. hairpins in KP Cls only. OUT. Subito p seems more effective here anyway.
m. 219 L dictates an eighth-note pickup for Antonio, citing multiple
sources including Sullivan's autograph, and also recommends that
Clarinet 1 and Bassoon 1 be altered to match. Since the
dotted-quarter-note pickup appears in multiple published sources, and
since it seems more practical to this editor, N offers both.
mm. 268-273 The vocal line for this recit. is cued in instruments which enter at m. 274: woodwinds, Cornets, and strings.
mm. 282-285 KP Cl2 slurs are simply missing here, extended from other woodwind and violin parts.
m. 286 What dynamic level to use for this section? KP strings have three different initial markings, all dropping to p for the vocal entrance. SP/V, providing the string texture only, just has f
with no adjustment. In this editor's opinion, the string texture
here should be played robustly; drowning out two strong male soloists
singing in unison, or the entire women's chorus, is just not much of a
concern. It does seem prudent to keep the wind doublings at p, as KP does throughout.
mm. 286-287 SP/V has staccato dots on the first-beat eighth-notes, not in KP. OUT.
m. 287 KP Cls sloppy cutoffs don't match each other or other
instruments. Cl2 is also missing a beat. N made them both
dotted-quarter-notes to match Fg2 and Hns.
m. 292 KP Hb has dotted quarter, eighth, doubling women's chorus which
has straight quarters in SP/V. Note that everyone has dotted
quarter, eighth later at m. 334. L recommends making both follow
m. 334, and I concur.
mm. 318-335 This passage is marked p for all instruments in all sources.
m. 329 KP has dim. hairpins in
the instruments playing the moving line of the fill music here.
Not in SP/V, but it dovetails well with the re-entrance of the voices,
and the starting dynamic was only p anyway. IN.
m. 337 KP V1 is marked sulla 4,
indicating that this melody-doubling is to be played on the G string,
presumably canceled by the rests in mm. 342-344. This marking
does appear in N, but I note with caution that, in this Editor's
experience, similar directions in Kalmus editions of other Savoy operas
have proven to be bogus. Just sayin'.
mm. 337-341 N's phrasing for the melody-doubling in Cl1 and V1 was taken from SP/V.
m. 350 Piu lento per SP/V (and N), not in KP. N also indicates a capella.
m. 352 In this last bar of this a capella
passage, SP/V vocal lines have a half-note with fermata, followed by a
quarter-rest. All KP instruments have a whole-bar rest with
fermata, as does the SP/V piano reduction. The quarter-rest is
superfluous, since no conductor will beat anything but the downbeat in
this measure. Worse, if the vocal lines appear as cues in
instrumental parts, the quarter-rest could cause considerable
confusion, since it implies a pickup which never happens.
(There's plenty of confusion here already: the downbeat of
m. 353 is also silent, a situation which N addresses with the note
"first beat silent".) So in the full score and in cues, N changes
the held vocal note to a dotted-quarter-note.
mm. 356-360 KP Fls have staccato dots on the arrival-eighth-notes which
do not appear in other melody instruments, OUT. mm. 363-367 same.
mm. 371-377 The staccato dots in KP Fls are confirmed by those in KP Cls, IN. mm. 387-393 and 439-445 same.
mm. 401-412 KP wind parts have staccato dots throughout, complementing the pizz. melody in V1. The wind parts also re-state the p dynamic.
m. 413 I made the editorial decision to omit the staccato dots in Bassoons and Horns here, since they double the Vc/Cb arco
rhythm in mm. 412-413. Other winds remain staccato for this one
last bar before their sustained notes begin at m. 414. Clarinets
remain staccato through m. 421, doubling pizz. V2 and Vc.
m. 414 Preventing the Cornets and Trombones from overpowering Marco and
Giuseppe here is understandable, but marking those instruments pp against the prevailing f seems excessive. Unequal dynamics, but [p].
m. 418 has dim. in all sources, but what should happen after that isn't clear. SP/V has the diminuendo finishing at p at m. 422, and staying there until f
at m. 430. KP's dynamics are so inconsistent in this passage as
to provide no guidance, but the orchestration at m. 430 does not seem
to justify getting loud suddenly: it's a change of tone-color,
with the strings dropping out and the winds doubling the melody in
octaves, a contrast which the Schirmer piano reduction may have chosen
to emulate with a subito f.
After much debate internal I decided to use unequal dynamics: that
Giuseppe has the lead in mm. 423-429, so the (two) instruments which
double his melody should play f, while instruments which double Marco's rhythm or mark the beat should play p. Then everybody into the pool with f at m. 430, setting up the fp at m. 438 for the "vespers" passage.
m. 431 In KP several instruments have accent-marks, and V1 has another
at m. 433. Seems unnecessary since those instruments also switch
from p to f here. OUT.
mm. 431-434 KP string parts have accompaniment notes which are
un-adorned, except for the few accent-marks mentioned above. The
wind instruments have slurs, and since these fit the vocal lines
better, N extends those slurs to the strings.
m. 527 The tempo marking Moderato recitativo indicates
both a new tempo and a temporary suspension of that tempo; in this case
the suspension lasts just one bar. The combination allows
Sullivan to cancel the recit. with a simple a tempo marking, with no need to (re-)state the tempo to which to resume (a feature which he undercuts here by specifying a tempo moderato).
Sullivan seems to use such combined tempo markings throughout
Gondoliers, a departure from his practice in earlier works.
m. 527 This recit. passage is so short and straightforward that I see no need to cue it in any instruments.
mm. 529-533 KP upper strings have staccato dots here and there.
SP/V has staccato dots only on the repeated eighth-note Gs played by
Viola. That distinction makes sense because the Violins are
doubling the vocal melody, and will be more melodic if not played
staccato. The three-eighth-note fill played by V1 and Vla at the
end of m. 533 should not be staccato, in this Editor's opinion, the
better to set up the fp whole-note in m. 534.
m. 540 The fp dynamic for strings, as used in Sullivan's day, resets the subsequent dynamic level to p, not the f specified in m. 539. The modern interpretation of fp as just another accent would leave the prevailing dynamic level at f.
No harm done either way; the chorus can tolerate loud accompaniment
here, and in fact might benefit from it. Note that the fp at m. 534 resets the dynamic level to the already-prevailing p. The one at m. 546 must set the prevailing dynamic level to p
for Guiseppe's and Marco's mostly-low-lying solo lines, but the repeated pitches somehow
make that intention clear, and N explicitly marks m 550 as [p].
m. 541 SP/V sopranos' second note should be E, not D, per L.
mm. 546-549 The vocal lines to this recit. passage are cued in strings.
m. 572 The last two eighth-notes of this bar depart from V1's hitherto
faithful doubling of the vocal melody. May be confusing to the
actress portraying Vittoria, but the departure is in both KP and SP/V.
mm. 573-580 For N I chose to extend the explicit staccato dots in winds
throughout the passage, since the strings are still pizz. throughout.
m. 581 What's the dynamic level for this passage? SP/V gives no
guidance, and KP has conflicting markings. I chose a robust [f],
noting that there's nothing delicate about this scene; no worries about
strings playing downbeats drowning out the full chorus; and decorative
lyrics which do nothing to advance the plot.
m. 601 Most KP woodwinds have staccato dots, which might make sense against the fp
in the upper strings, but the brass and Vc/Cb parts lack the
dots. If Sullivan wanted this note short, why wouldn't he just
use an eighth-note instead of a staccato quarter-note? So
OUT. More gratuitous woodwind staccato dots at m. 605, this time
mm. 601-622 No source indicates where the recit.
ends, and regular time-beating resumes. But surely "Just the very
girl" onwards should be in strict time. So N has [a tempo] at m. 612. The vocal lines to mm. 601-611 are cued in all instruments.
m. 612 The p strings-only entrance on beat 2, followed by tutti f
on beat 3, is an unusual detail in Sullivan recitatives, and could lead
to confusion and sloppiness in the pit and onstage. Although it's
consistently found in KP and SP/V, and therefore likely authentic, this
Editor would have no objection if a production chose to omit the string chord.
m. 618 Wedge-accents are found in all four KP woodwind parts and in SP/V. IN.
mm. 623-627 This passage is ff in most Kalmus parts, f
in SP/V. Unlike most of the full-orchestra comments in this long
opening number, this one does have some tenderness to it. f it is.
mm. 628-631 dim to p appears in both SP/V and KP Vla, IN.
mm. 663-669 KP has different and inconsistent slurs and staccato dots
for the melody-doubling instruments here. For N I took the slurs,
lack of staccato dots, and m. 668 hairpin from SP/V.
mm. 669-670 KP has staccato dots on these two quarter-notes in most woodwind parts. Not in SP/V, OUT.
mm. 688-689 SP/V knocks the dynamic down to pp here, and several Kalmus parts do the same, IN. The next dynamic markings in SP/V are a cresc. hairpin at m. 710 to f at m. 711. That's a long time to maintain pp, and indeed some Kalmus parts have cresc. at mm. 696-697 (just as the tessitura of Tessa's melody kicks up higher) to p at m 700. I like that KP shape better, and extended it to all parts.
mm. 692-695 KP V1 slurs all four bars together. KP Fls and SP/V
have two 2-bar phrases, emphasizing the elegant repetition. In a
similar passage back at mm. 676-679, KP Cl1 has two 2-bar
phrases. N follows the elegant majority.
mm. 698-699 KP Fl1 and Hb, doubling Tessa's melody, tie the C-natural across
the barline; SP/V does not. For N I kept them Kalmus's way,
noting that the two parts are phrased exactly the same, and that the
resulting quasi-hemiola rhythm seems appropriate here.
mm. 700-703 KP Cl1 and V1, doubling the vocal melody, are phrased
differently. Slurring the whole phrase as V1 does makes the most
sense melodically, but SP/V agrees with Cl1, which has the last two
notes ("-lie-ri") under their
own slur. This sort of discrepancy is quite typical; what's
unusual is that the phrasing back to m. 688 has shown an unusual degree
of agreement between instruments and with SP/V. So I chose to use
SP/V as a tie-breaker here, and extended the Cl1 phrasing to V1.
mm. 700-712 I decided that the staccato dots in several Kalmus parts
are either redundant (on eighth-notes) or bogus (on quarter-notes).
mm. 719-753 in N, small noteheads are an ossia line for Tessa suggested by L.
mm. 729-732 KP has cresc./dim. hairpins for the Cornet and Trombone sustained notes, a nice touch not found in SP/V. IN.
m. 745 Rehearsal letter "I" appears in SP/V but not in KP. N provides it as "II".
m. 749 Sloppy cutoff due to unique dotted half in KP Vc/Cb. Others have quarter, and in N Vc and Cb do also.
mm. 749-752 Phrasing taken from mm. 68-69 and 124-125.
m. 779 Sloppy cutoff: SP/V has the vocal lines cutting off after
a half-note. KP Vc/Cb have the same. KP upper strings have
just an eighth-note, preparing for their soli
arpeggio run. But KP winds and percussion unanimously cut off
after a quarter-note. Other considerations: the vocal
syllable is uniformly "la", very forgiving of uneven cutoffs. In
vocal music, a small note-value at the end of a multi-measure tied note
is a convention reminding the singer to sustain the sound throughout
the previous measure; but a half-note in this meter is just
weird. Honoring that convention, and in the interests of
crispness, N changes all of them to eighth-notes.
mm. 784-788 KP V1 and V2 do not specify divisi
here, neither explicitly nor with stemming, but at this tempo it's
obvious. N makes it explicit. mm. 792-795 same. N also
marks mm. 796 non divisi.
Nº 2. From the sunny Spanish shore
m. 44 SP/V, my
only source for vocal melodies, has dotted-eighth-note, sixteenth-note
for the second beat -- a rhythmic pattern also found throughout the
vocal lines of this song, and also in Cl1, the only instrument which
ever doubles the melody. But in m. 80, the same spot in the
second verse and with identical lyrics, it's a quarter-note,
eighth-note triplet. Perhaps Sullivan decided that the dotted
rhythm would sound too severe right after the actual eighth-note
triplet in m. 79 -- but of course then we're right back to dotted
rhythms in mm. 81-82. Another detail which may be related to this
conundrum: that melody-doubling Clarinet consistently plays the
dotted rhythm in the first verse, but in the second verse Sullivan
substitutes eighth-note, sixteenth-rest, sixteenth-note in all but one
case. Determining whether these differences are well-motivated,
masterfully subtle variations between verses; gratuitous ones; or
outright errors is beyond this Editor's capability; all I can do is to
transcribe them faithfully.
m. 47 KP Bassoon 1 is marked f against the prevailing p. Sure it's a solo, but f seems excessive; marking it solo
should be sufficient. For N my compromise is to omit the dynamic
marking altogether, implicitly continuing the prevailing p but not explicitly specifying it. Same m. 83 second time.
mm. 55-57 KP has
staccato dots in Hns, not for any other instruments. SP/V has
solid staccato dots for the whole passage, mm. 51-57. In this
editor's opinion, Schirmer's dots were inspired by the pizz.
strings, and Sullivan never intended that his winds play staccato
sixteenth-notes at this fast tempo. But he also didn't want them
played tenuto or legato, so N removes the staccato dots and marks all wind parts non legato. Same mm. 87-97 second time.
m. 59 KP V1 has a wedge-accent on the downbeat, the arrival-note after
the thirty-second-note triplet. Since this accent mark does not
appear in the other string parts, in the percussion part, nor in SP/V,
and since in m. 99 not even V1 has it, OUT.
m. 62 SP/V has rehearsal letter "B" here. In KP (and N) it's at m. 50.
m. 86 KP Perc has rehearsal letter "C" one bar late.
KP Perc has a drum roll during
the ensuing dialogue written into the part. Since some sources of
dialogue specify this drum roll (e.g. G&S Archive) but others do
not (e.g. SP/V); since it might well be performed onstage, by Luiz himself; and
since there's nothing musically noteworthy about this roll, N does not include this cue in the percussion part.
Nº 3. In enterprise
m. 17 Per L, Sullivan may have wanted the Duke's rhythm to match Violin
1 here. L also cites a source which suggests the opposite: changing the
orchestral rhythm to match the vocal line. N changed
nothing. Same mm. 45 and 73 in later verses.
m. 85 The sudden dynamic f seems abrupt, but it's very clearly indicated in SP/V and in some KP. IN.
Nº 4. O rapture, when alone together
m. 3 KP sloppy cutoff: some instruments have eighth-note, others
have quarter-note. N uses all eighth-notes per SP/V.
m. 3 SP/V's fermata on beat 3, then no fermata on beat 4 as if it were
a pickup, is not consistent with this Editor's performance
tradition. KP consistently has the fermata over a half-rest on
beats 3 and 4. N uses two fermatas.
m. 4 KP V2 part shows handwritten rehearsal letter "E" here, not in
other parts or sources, OUT. Same m. 21 "F", m. 32 "G", m. 41 "H",
and m. 53 "I".
mm. 15-20 The vocal line for this recit. passage is cued in strings.
mm. 44-45 cresc. and mf
are in most KP, not in SP/V, but are quite consistent with the
higher-register vocal lines here. SP/V, along with all relevant
KP, does have dim. at m. 49, which makes no sense if the dynamic is still p. So these markings are IN.
Nº 5. There was a timem. 1 KP Vc/Cb does not call for sordini
here; the upper string parts do, throughout this piece. Since the
Cello part so often matches the upper strings' rhythms, especially at
the beginning, I chose to mark that part [con sordini]
as well. The Bass part is more sustained and sporadic, so I chose
to leave that instrument un-muted, although I see merit in the opposite
m. 9 KP V2, Vla, Vc/Cb part shows rehearsal letter "A" here. Not
found in other instruments or SP/V, so OUT. All other rehearsal
letters in this piece are found only in selected instruments, so OUT of
N: m. 17 KP V2, Vla "B"; m. 24 KP V2, Vla "C"; m. 28 KP V2, Vla,
Vc/Cb "D"; m. 36 KP V2, Vla "E"; m. 42 KP V2, Vla "F", m. 49 KP V2, Vla
m. 30 KP V2 has straight quarter-notes on beats 3 and 4, unlike m. 3 in
the first verse. KP V2 and Vc have the same, but the parts appear to have
been doctored from the original dotted-quarter-note, eighth-note.
The other strings and SP/V have the dotted rhythm in both verses.
In this Editor's opinion, the straight quarters fit the lyrics better
here, and a production would be justified in changing the rhythm; but N
uses the dotted rhythm found in the majority of sources.
m. 31 SP/V has a full quarter-note on beat 3; in the first verse it has
eighth-note, eighth-rest. All KP have the eighth-rests in both
verses, in the interest of giving a little more punch to "ah" on beat
4. m. 34 same.
m. 33 A repeat of m. 30, but this time SP/V has straight quarter-notes,
matching the vocal rhythm. KP strings agree, except for Vla,
which has the dotted rhythm. Again N follows the majority:
m. 38 KP Vla E-sharp per key signature should be E-natural per other instruments.
Nº 6. I stole the Princem.
19 KP Cls has staccato dots, not found in other instruments nor in
SP/V. OUT. Same mm. 44, 69, and 94 in later verses.
The staccato dots on the octave-jumps in the KP woodwind parts are so
consistent that I deemed them authentic. I extended them to the
unmarked octave-jumps in the passage as necessary, but not to the Horn
notes (since they are not playing octave-jumps), nor to the Cb
octave-jumps in m. 27, nor to non-octave material in the woodwinds in
m. 28. Same mm. 48-53, 73-78, and 98-103 in later verses, and mm.
104-108 in the playout.
mm. 66 and 89 have fermatas -- complete with modern indications of the
subsequent eighth-note pickups -- in KP string parts, not in the wind
parts nor in SP/V. These pauses are definitely part of this
Editor's performance tradition. IN.
Nº 7. But, bless my heartThe vocal lines for this entire short full-orchestra recit. piece are cued in all instruments.
6 L cites a source which states that "Blue-crayon marks in autograph
show Orch brought in after the voice." That method would prevent
the full orchestra from covering up the word "clear". Five bars
later, Casilda's "(Gon-do-)lier" is in a more advantageous register for
her, and obvious from context and rhyme anyway -- although L mentions
this spot too.
mm. 7-8 The two quarter-notes here have no dynamic marking in SP/V, implying f. But KP has p, consistently, which works better to avoid drowning Casilda out.
Nº 8. Try we life-longm. 12 SP/V has f, KP has p. My opinion: the singers can sing as loud as they like, but the orchestra should play under them. p it is.
m. 20 f in both SP/V and some KP. IN.
m. 36 L suggests an ossia for the Duchess here, not in N.
m. 40 Discrepancies in phrasing for soprano-melody-doubling instruments
were resolved per SP/V, which agrees with KP V1, not with any of the
woodwinds. For N I took the liberty of modifying the phrasing in
m. 38 to match, even though neither SP/V nor KP V1 provides a model
m. 41 rehearsal letter "D" appears only in KP V2 and Vla, just three bars before "E", OUT.
m. 44 rehearsal letter "E" in all KP. SP/V calls it "D". L notes this discrepancy as well. N calls it "D/E".
m. 44 V2 has a key solo here while V1 rests. So N cues the solo in V1 in case of a timid V2 section.
m. 45 Per KP: lower strings, playing accompaniment texture, are pizz.; Violins, doubling the melody along with Flutes and Clarinets, have no pizz. marking, implying arco staccato. A few notes in KP Vc have staccato dots, but that's superfluous when that instrument is already playing pizz.
m. 51 rehearsal letter "F" appears only in selected KP string parts, but it seems useful. IN.
m. 51 Vla, playing the same texture as above, switches to arco. Per SP/V this texture should have staccato dots, not found in KP. IN.
m. 51 SP/V marks the accompaniment ff, perhaps to compensate for voicing the countermelody in a weak upper register of the piano. In KP it's f, which seems right for so many instruments.
mm. 55-56 The orchestra switches from countermelody to
vocal-doubling. I view it as significant that KP V1 and V2 drop
the staccato dots here,
although SP/V continues them. The upper strings have eighth-note,
eighth-rest on m. 55, beat 3, and m. 56, beat 1, where winds, Vc, and
all singers have quarter-notes; I view this detail as preventing the
string texture from dominating on these notes. So N accomplishes
contrast with the previous countermelody by discontinuing the staccato dots, but keeping the eighth-rests.
m. 59 Note that only Cb sustains its note through the fermata along
with the singers. All other instruments cut off -- and since
we're already in a Rall., achieving this selective cutoff may pose a
conducting challenge. This detail is found in both KP and SP/V,
although the latter implies that Vc also sustains its note.
m. 60 rehearsal letter "G" appears only in selected KP string parts, but it seems useful. IN.
mm. 60-63 SP/V has all of the eighth-notes here marked with staccato
dots, but KP has none. Since there are no singers to drown out in
this playout, I say that the orchestra should finally be permitted to play this
melody in full-value notes.
Nº 9. Bridegroom and bridem. 11 SP/V has rehearsal letter "A", not in KP but useful, IN.
m. 19 L suggests that the second note of the Alto line should be C, not D. m. 20 same.
m. 27 dim in SP/V is also in several Kalmus parts; N extends it to all instruments. m. 31 p same.
m. 34 The fermata in SP/V is not in KP. It seems to me that Sullivan wrote exactly as much of a pause here as he wanted. OUT.
42, 44 Sloppy cutoffs: KP Cls have half-note, half-rest; Fgs have
dotted-half-note. N uses all half-notes to allow the string texture,
and Tessa's pickup, to be heard. mm. 85, 87 same.
mm. 50-52 Woodwind and V1 slurs per Introduction mm. 144-146. Same mm. 93-85 second verse.
mm. 53-56 KP V2 does not specify divisi, but stemming and technical considerations strongly imply it. N makes it explicit. Same mm. 96-99 second time.
m. 67 L makes a case that the first note for Violin 2 should be D, not C, and I concur. IN.
m. 76 Odd
rhythm in KP Vla makes that part stand out in an unexpected way.
For N I adjusted the rhythm to match the other instruments and to match m. 120.
mm. 76-77 Slurs in KP V1&2 match those in SP/V, so for N I extended
that phrasing to Flutes and Oboe. When the same material appears
in the playout, mm. 120-121, all sources have even more gratuitous
variations in slurs, so I re-used the phrasing from mm. 76-77.
mm. 78-79 No staccato dots in N here, on the same theory as the playout of Nº 8. mm. 122-123 same.
mm. 116-117 Staccato dots in SP/V and in KP Hns extended to Fls and Cls to match pizz. strings.
m. 118 Nothing explicit in any source, but the orchestration leaves the
conductor defenseless against Tessa treating the melody here as a
cadenza, and in this Editor's experience, she does so. N adds [colla voce], and [a tempo] at m. 120.
Nº 10. Act I finalemm. 5-87 SP/V marks just about every note in the piano accompaniment staccato, consistent with pizzicato
strings here. KP has staccato dots for some of the detached wind
eighth-notes, blending well with that string texture, and I extended
these markings to all such notes. Some melody-doubling phrases
have staccato dots in KP as well, but others, as well as other
sustained wind notes, are slurred. I extended both types of
markings, aiming for contrast.
m. 27 A few KP have cresc. here, and KP Hns has a dim.
hairpin a bar later. A production with Viennese aspirations might
observe a ritard here. But none of these markings are in SP/V,
OUT. Same m. 73 second time.
m. 29 Several KP are marked mf, up from the previous p,
not in SP/V. Gianetta's line jumps up to a more powerful register
here, so these markings may have been someone's attempt at
balance. But Sullivan has already adjusted the balance with
thicker orchestration, and with an explicit cresc. at m. 32. So in my judgment these mf markings are bogus. Instead, N re-states the prevailing dynamic here as [p]. Same m. 75 second time.
m. 32 As mentioned above, per SP/V this cresc. is authentic, as is the dim. at m. 35. But in modern practice dynamic adjustments should have target levels, so N retains (and extends) the [f] on Gianetta's money-note in m. 33. Same m. 78 second time.
m. 33 SP/V colla voce, and a tempo at m. 38, make good sense. Same m. 79 second time.
mm. 43-45 and 89-91 No source indicates any slowdown except for the
fermata, but the rhythm of the accompaniment certainly lends itself to
vocal embellishment in both verses. N marks these passages with [colla voce] canceled by [a tempo], and retains the fermata in the second verse only.
m. 96 Another combined tempo marking, Recit. L'istesso tempo, allows Sullivan to resume the beat with just a tempo at m. 100.
mm. 96-99 The vocal lines for this recit. passage are cued in strings.
m. 97 Sullivan usually uses fp to mean "start the note f, drop down to p, and play the following notes p as well". Modern practice is to treat fp, sf, sfz,
wedge-accents, and teepee-accents as more-or-less
interchangeable. So to clarify Sullivan's intent to modern
players, N marks the subsequent notes [p].
mm. 100-103 Staccato dots are inconsistent in KP. N extends them per SP/V.
m. 104 SP/V rightly returns to Recit. here, not found in KP. This marking makes the colla voce at m. 107 superfluous, deleted in N.
mm. 104-107 The vocal lines for this recit. passage are cued in strings.
mm. 105-107 Odd scoring here: Viola does not play mm. 105-106,
and a couple of open fifths. Sullivan's obscure reference to the
Grand Inquisitor's ecclesiastical role? But this exact voicing appears
in SP/V's piano reduction, so apparently it's authentic.
m. 132 KP Cls is marked "pause first time only", but "I have known
it done" for Marco to pause at m. 162 in his verse. In Tessa's
and Giuseppe's verses, mm. 191-193 and 221-222, similar pauses are
marked colla voce.
mm. 135-143 SP/V has staccato dots on nearly every note throught this passage. I interpret these dots as representing the pizzicato
strings, not applicable to the winds, and indeed KP has no staccato dots for winds
here. KP does have a few staccato dots sprinkled around this
passage in later verses, but I considered those to be bogus.
m. 143-144 Should the slur end at the second thirty-second-note, or
should it cross the barline to include the first eighth-note? KP
is not consistent instrument-to-instrument, or verse-to-verse within the
same part, and SP/V is not consistent verse-to-verse either. SP/V
was the key evidence for me: in the third and fourth verses, the
slur does not cross the barline, clearing the way for that first
eighth-note to be marked staccato. But the pizzicato
marking does not take effect until the second eighth-note in any
instrument, in any verse, so therefore the slur should always cross the
barline. Same mm. 173-174, 203-204, and 232-233 in later verses.
mm. 144-146 More staccato dots in SP/V, and also in KP. In my
opinion, staccato sixteenth-notes at this tempo are just silly, so N
omits the dots. Same mm. 176-178, 204-206, and 233-235 in later
m. 144 KP Fls knocks the dynamic back down to p, not in other parts. OUT. Same mm. 176, 204, and 233 in later verses.
mm. 183-185 These staccato dots for Fg1 seem to fit the mood. The
staccato dots for upper strings in m. 186 are in both KP and SP/V.
m. 185 Per L, SP/V changed Sullivan's vocal rhythm to "correct" the
syllabification of the word "aristocrat". N uses L's authentic
rhythm. Note, though, that Schirmer's rhythm may be more
comprehensible to American ears.
m. 190 Tessa's "bear away the bell" answered by Triangle is inauthentic, but an
irresistible detail of this Editor's performance tradition.
mm. 194-196 KP Hn1 sustains its note across this brief passage, instead
of re-articulating it, along with Cls, Fgs, and Hn2, in the middle of
m. 195, and as it does in the previous verses, mm. 134-136 and
164-166. N follows the pattern of the earlier verses. mm.
m. 221 L suggests an ossia for Giuseppe here.
m. 222 SP/V has rehearsal letter "F" here; KP has it at m. 223, as does N.
m. 236 L discusses multiple alternative harmonies for Gianetta and Marco here. N follows SP/V.
mm. 241-242 KP Fls and Hb have eighth-note, eighth-rest pairs, matching the pizzicato
strings. KP Cls, Fgs, and Hns have quarter-notes, matching
the vocal lines. The shorter notes in the high instruments sound
peculiar, making the longer notes sound like a mistake, and not
supporting the singers; SP/V seems to concur that all of the winds
should play quarter-notes, as does N.
m. 243 sloppy cutoff: KP Cls and strings have an eighth-note
against quarter-notes in all other instruments. The strings are
playing pizz. anyway, but N changes the Clarinets to play quarter-notes.
m. 250 The all-eighth-note accompaniment pattern in this passage is
varied by Cornets and Trombones here, with quarter-notes which match
the melodic rhythm. This subtle detail gives the brass a moment
to shine without breaking up the forward motion. Simply masterful
orchestration. m. 258 same.
m. 262 SP/V specifies f for the chorus, but no source has any dynamic for the orchestra/accompaniment here, implying that the prevailing ff continues.
m. 272 KP Cl2 second eighth-note should be concert A, not C, by comparison with Fl2 and Fg2. m. 274 same.
m. 300 KP V2 has rall. here, and a tempo two bars later. Not found in other sources. OUT.
m. 303 As described in L, rehearsal letter "J" does not appear here in SP/V,
which has an inauthentic rehearsal letter "I" at m. 304, as well as an
inauthentic and potentially confusing rehearsal letter "J" at m. 313.
mm. 313-379 In both KP and SP/V, interpreted literally, the dynamic p at m. 313 continues throughout Marco and Giuseppe's long duet, then abruptly bumps up to ff
when the chorus enters at m. 379. As a practical matter, the
dynamic level will naturally creep upward with the passage of time and
with the increasingly dense orchestration, so the transition to the
chorus will not be as jarring as it appears on paper.
mm. 332-337 Per L, SP/V changed the vocal rhythms for the word
"aristocrat" three more times here. N uses L's authentic
rhythms. Same mm. 395-398 when the women's chorus repeats the
m. 342 rehearsal letter "L" is missing from KP V1.
m. 347 There's an extra note in this bar, compared with the pattern of
the previous six, so the pattern of slurs must change too. KP V1
slurs the fourth and fifth eighth-notes, matching the vocal
melisma. (V1 also has staccato
dots on the two un-slurred eighth-notes, which I interpret as a
redundant reminder to play them un-slurred.) KP Cl1 and SP/V have
nothing. But when this melody repeats at m. 398, KP Fls and Hb
(and V1) match the earlier V1 pattern, although KP Cl1 and SP/V still
have nothing. For N I used the V1 pattern everywhere.
m. 391 All accompaniment notes in this bar are eighth-notes. The
sustained notes all double the melody note, except KP Cl2, which plays
concert F-natural against the melody Bb. It's a note of the
chord, but the open fifth is a bit jarring. Note that in m. 379,
the previous statement of this melody, all instruments cut off on an
eighth-note to make room for the chorus entrance. For N I left
it, but in my opinion a production would be justified in changing this
Cl2 note to either concert Bb (perhaps down the octave to reinforce the
men's chorus) or concert D (not doubling any singers, just more
harmonious with them), or in shortening it to an eighth-note as at m.
m. 399 The vocal melisma here does not appear in any instrument in any source.
m. 406 Odd slurring by half-bar with pickup here, consistent in all KP
melody-doubling parts. SP/V has no slurs. The KP pattern is
so weird that I used the one from m. 355 instead.
mm. 460-476 The vocal lines to this recit. passage are cued in strings, Bassoons, and Horns.
m. 462 No dynamic change in SP/V, and in KP only in Vc/Cb part. But clearly the prevailing ff is wrong, so for N I extended mf to all instruments.
m. 468 KP Vla, VC have rehearsal letter "Ss". SP/V has "S"
(which in KP is at m. 435). Not in other instruments, OUT.
m. 477 KP Cls, Hns specify "in 8". As an absent-minded
Conductor I would personally appreciate this reminder, counteracting
Sullivan's misleading con moto. IN.
mm. 478-484 The tenuto lines for winds are from KP Fls, not in KP Cls nor SP/V, but a useful reminder, IN. I extended the staccato dots for winds throughout the passage, per SP/V.
m. 483 In the SP/V piano reduction, the D-sharps in the second half of
the bar should be D-naturals, forming a harmonious E-dominant-7th chord
rather than a dissonant E-major-7th. KP Cls got it right.
m. 486 SP/V has rehearsal letter "U" here; KP has it at m. 491, as does N. L notes this discrepancy as well.
m. 489 Staccato dots on
sixteenth-notes for KP woodwinds at first seem superfluous. But
their presence in SP/V made me reconsider them. In this very slow
passage, where most sixteenth-notes should be played legato
whether explicitly slurred or not, these dots are a useful reminder,
and an aid to reading a complex, un-beamed rhythm. IN.
m. 490 KP V1 has sixteenth-note pickup. Eighth-note in all other
instruments and in SP/V. N changed to an eighth-note.
m. 497 colla voce in KP V1 only, nowhere else. OUT. m. 498 a tempo same.
m. 497 KP V1 is marked portato and has cresc./dim. hairpins, also in SP/V. IN, extended to all three upper string parts.
m. 498 KP V1 is marked portato for the first four sixteenth-notes, not in SP/V, OUT.
m. 504 Staccato dots in KP V1, V2, and Fls; not in Vla, Vc, nor SP/V. Since similar material in mm. 500 and 508 (at half-speed) is all staccato, IN.
mm. 510-511 All KP have a whole-rest fermata in m. 511. SP/V has
the fermata on the last quarter-note of m. 510. Doesn't much
matter since both bars are a capella,
and in practice both bars are likely to be out of meter. What
really matters is bringing the orchestra back in for m. 512, and the
Kalmus notation accomplishes that end better.
m. 512 KP V1 has staccato dots, also found in SP/V, but my policy is
that staccato sixteenth-notes in fast tempo are unreasonable and
m. 512 Since all other instruments playing sustained G-natural are tied across to the next measure, Tbn2 should be as well.
m. 525 sloppy cutoff: everyone else has an eighth-note on the
second beat, but KP Vla has a quarter-note. Adjusted to an
eighth-note in N.
m. 532 L corrects the lyric "shall" to "will" in the women's chorus part, and I concur.
m. 544 SP/V has rehearsal letter "W" here; KP has it at m. 530, as does
N. SP/V has no rehearsal letters past "W", but KP and N have "X"
at m. 542, "Y" at m. 552, and "Z" at m. 566.
m. 561 No reason why Timpani should play three eighth-notes in the
second half of the bar, while the rest of the orchestra plays
quarter-note, eighth-note, but that's what KP has. N changes it to match the rest of the orchestra.
m. 571 Largamente appears here:
KP Fls, printed above the staff, as if a tempo marking, but positioned as if to take effect on the second beat of this measure
KP Hb, handwritten above the staff, as if an afterthought or correction as a tempo marking
KP Cls, handwritten above the staff, as if an afterthought or correction as a tempo marking
KP Fgs, handwritten above the staff, as if an afterthought or correction as a tempo marking
KP Hns, printed
between the staves for the two instruments, which is unusual for a
tempo marking, but capitalized, which is unusual for an expressive
KP Cts, not at all. sostenuto e legato appears between the staves for the two instruments here, sloppily printed, as if an expressive direction.
KB Tbn1&2, not at all.
KB Tbn3, not at all. sostenuto e legato appears below the staff, handwritten, as if an afterthought or correction as an expressive direction.
KP Perc, printed above the staff, as if a tempo marking
KP V1, not at all
KP V2, handwritten above the staff, as if an afterthought or correction as a tempo marking
KP Vla, printed above the staff but crossed out, as if a cancelled tempo marking
KP Vc/Cb, printed above the staff but crossed out, as if a cancelled tempo marking
SP/V, between the staves of the piano reduction, as if an expressive direction rather than a tempo marking
N, as a tempo marking, in [editorial brackets].
Nº 11. Of happinessHandwritten
rehearsal letters are found only in a very few KP, and not at all in
SP/V. Most of those letters seem to be good locations for
restarting in rehearsal, rather than Sullivan's typical practice of
marking structural waypoints, another clue that they are not authentic,
and not particularly useful because so few instruments have them.
OUT; N's measure numbers will have to do.
m. 9 Slurs and staccato dots added to the four upper wind parts for consistency with all other appearances of this phrase.
mm. 41-49 The same material also appears in mm. 22-30 and 89-97 with
different dynamics each time, for no apparent reason. The first
appearance is marked f in all sources. This second appearance, with thicker orchestration, is p in KP woodwinds, mf in KP Hns and strings, and mf
in SP/V. The third appearance, with orchestration identical to
the second, is even more of a hodgepodge. The second and third
appearances feature cresc. at m. 48/96 to f two bars later, found in most sources. N marks the first appearance f, the second and third mf cresc. to f. Sullivan mostly avoided mf, but starting p is too quiet, and cresc. to ff is too loud, so mf seems like the least bad choice here.
m. 47 As mentioned above the second and third appearances of the men's
chorus material differ from the first in significant ways, including
the modulation which begins in this bar, and may explain the difference
in the second tenor part here. But the first bass part has just a
one-note difference between the second and third appearances (m. 94),
perhaps gratuitously so, since otherwise Bassoon 1 consistently doubles
the first bass. Since no one is likely to use N as an
authoritative source for vocal lines, N merely suggests the Bassoon 1
note as an ossia for first bass.
mm. 48-51 KP Fls and Violins play five trills, and six groups of two-slurred-eighth-notes, one-staccato-eighth-note
within this passage, and SP/V mostly concurs. KP Cls, playing
much of the same material, omit two of the trills; KP Hb, playing just
one bar of this material, omits its trill. N omits the Oboe
trill, on the theory that Sullivan often treats the Oboe as a less
athletic instrument than Flutes and Clarinets, but extends the rest of
the markings to all five upper woodwinds. Same mm. 96-99.
mm. 64-74 KP has staccato dots for some instruments, but not consistently and not in SP/V. In this Editor's opinion, the eighth-rests, the p dynamic, and doubling one and two octaves above the singers lightens the texture plenty here. OUT.
m. 71 L describes "an ensemble problem with the strings", based on an
un-notated "caesura" (grand pause) from "performance practice".
My own limited experience with Gondoliers
productions does not include this grand pause, but with or without it I
don't see a problem here. The "short chord" on beat 3 (of 6) has
no "need to resolve" since it's already E-flat major. Flutes and
Clarinets play beat 4 right in tempo and hold as long as the singers
do. Strings don't play after beat 3 at all! Now, if the
fermata were followed by a pickup, that would complicate matters, but
the measure as it stands seems quite straightforward.
mm. 75-85 Violin slurs taken from SP/V.
m. 87 Staccato dots extended to all instruments per SP/V.
m. 104 All KP strings play double-stops, including Bass if
interpreted literally. For N I omitted the upper Bass note, on
the grounds that it adds nothing but muddiness to the last bar of an
otherwise crisp and bright tune.
Nº 12. Rising earlyKP Vla has rehearsal letters not found in other string parts, OUT. m. 17=A; m. 26=B; m. 41=C
m. 2 SP/V slurs this whole bar to the first beat of m. 3, but all KP consistently slur by half-bar, so N follows KP.
mm. 25-57 KP woodwinds, and V1 when doubling the vocal melody, are mostly marked staccato throughout this passage. Most of these are fully written out, a few rely on "implied simile",
and some are missing entirely. The arrival-notes at the ends of
phrases are consistently not dotted, a typical Sullivan detail.
Some arrival-notes are quarter-notes, some are eighth-notes, with no
apparent pattern, but these note-values are consistent part-to-part and
with SP/V. The dots appear to be printed into the typeset parts,
not added by hand later, another indication of their
authenticity. SP/V only has a few staccato
passages, but the pattern is clear and consistent in KP, and a clipped
texture matches the patter-like vocal delivery. IN. Same
mm. 75-107 second verse.
mm. 58-66 The only staccato
dots here in any source are in KP V1. This men's chorus response
is inherently less patter-like than the solo, so OUT. Same mm.
108-115 second verse.
m. 66 KP Vc/Cb has a fermata, not in other sources. OUT.
Nº 13. Take a pair of sparkling eyesm. 29 KP V1 has colla voce, not in any other instrument or source, OUT. Same m. 76 second time.
47 L cites editions in which Marco's note is a full
dotted-half-note. But the orchestral entrance would step on the
last two eighths of this note, so I prefer SP/V's rhythm. m. 94
same second verse.
Nº 14. Here we arem. 48 One single staccato
dot in SP/V accompaniment. KP Fls and Cls have a few similar dots
in this section as well. Not found in the Introduction nor in
other parts. I judge them all to be bogus, OUT. Same mm.
89-95 on the repeat.
mm. 49-53 KP winds omit the arrival-note from each slur. These parts are completely consistent in this detail, completely inconsistent
with the V1 and SP/V phrasing-marks in the same passage, and also
inconsistent with Introduction mm. 48-55 and 91-95. The same
issue appears, in fewer instruments, in mm. 93 and 97 on the
repeat. The phrasing in V1 and SP/V is clearly the correct one.
m. 55 SP/V has accompaniment marked p,
suddenly, leaving the last sung note unsupported, and undercutting the
Horn/Bassoon transitional chords. I much prefer the dim to p found in KP.
mm. 99-106 Dynamics are still f under the solo voices, probably too loud for all but Marco's high G. But p seems too quiet, too low-energy for the drama here, and better to hold p in reserve for m. 107. So N has [dim.] to [mf].
m. 112 KP V1 staccato dots stop here, but they continue in SP/V. So N assumes implied simile and continues them too. Same m. 136 in the second verse.
m. 123 SP/V finally discontinues the staccato
dots when Gianetta and Tessa sing the pickup together, a good place to
make this change. KP have dots here and there in no
apparent pattern, I judged these to be bogus, OUT. Same m. 147 in
the second verse.
m. 123 All accompaniment instruments switch from full quarter-notes to
eighth-note, eighth-rest on beat 4, and continue with that lighter
rhythm for the rest of the phrase -- except KP Vc/Cb, which have a
quarter-note on beat 4, then switch to the lighter texture a beat
later. I was tempted to change the bass line to match the others,
but SP/V has a full quarter-note here also, and emphasizing the
bass-line octave leap in this way is a frequent practice of
Sullivan's. m. 147 same.
mm. 127-128 More staccato dots scattered amongst selected KP, bogus, OUT.
mm. 155-156 p dynamic marking in SP/V and some KP extended to all instruments.
mm. 155-159 SP/V, as well as several KP instruments, both melody-doubling and accompaniment, start this passage staccato and
then abruptly drop the dots. Perhaps Sullivan intended this
passage to start quiet and clipped, then to become less clipped as it
becomes louder (and perhaps faster, see below), and finally not clipped
at all, and very loud, for the long note-values at the end. Now,
degrees of clipped-ness are possible, if tedious, to notate
precisely: Sullivan could have started with a thirty-second-note,
dotted-sixteenth-rest pair in place of each eighth-note, progressing to
sixteenth-note, sixteenth-rest pairs, and so forth. Sullivan was
famously not shy about using tiny note- and rest-values to specify his
rhythms precisely, when he cared. In this case, apparently he
cared enough only to use staccato dots, which are imprecise and ambiguous, not least because of the implied simile
convention. For N, I believe we can come close to the effect
Sullivan intended by abandoning articulations entirely, and simply
using dynamics: start pp, cresc. through p and f to ff by the end.
m. 163 KP V1 and V2 have Accel., not in other instruments nor in SP/V. But I Have Known It Done, so N includes it in [editorial brackets].
m. 166 Sloppy cutoff in KP: a mixture of
half-note-tied-to-eighth-note and half-note-tied-to-quarter-note.
SP/V chose quarter-note, and so did N.
Nº 15. Dance a cachucham. 1 The tempo marking in SP/V is Tempo di Cachucha allegretta. KP just has Tempo di cachucha. In this Editor's opinion, Tempo di Cachucha is delightfully ambiguous, but any form of allegretta is too slow for "that wildest of dances", OUT.
m. 9 SP/V has teepee-accents on the backbeats, not in KP, OUT.
mm. 9-12 Some KP have sporadic staccato dots or dynamic adjustments, all bogus, OUT.
m. 11 SP/V says pesente, not in KP, OUT.
mm. 26-40 Staccato dots in SP/V and selected KP were extended to all
instruments throughout the passage. Vc
and Cb are exceptions since they are already pizzicato,
and single eighth-notes on downbeats. Bassoons and Horns mm.
39-40 are also exceptions since they do not double the melody, but
rather re-state the rhythm from mm. 1 and 3, and foreshadow the
Cornets' ostinato which begins in m. 42.
m. 27 p dynamic not found in SP/V, but KP are nearly unanimous.
m. 41 This final full bar of this passage breaks up the rhythm and also the all-staccato-all-the-time pattern.
m. 43 KP upper string parts all say pesente,
a tempo-killer in my opinion. For N I prefer the SP/V technique
of accenting just about everything, explicitly for two bars, then with
the direction marcato. Same mm. 78-81 and 118-121 on the repeats.
m. 109 The trill and slur found in SP/V and some KP are unique to this
appearance of the melody: mm. 17 and 71 are un-adorned. I
deemed them as dressing up the melody for its use in the dance/playout,
and extended them to all melody instruments.
m. 117 KP V2 G# sounds weird, even though it's in the chord. Changed it B-natural per m. 25 and SP/V.
Nº 16. There lived a KingKP
notates the song as three verses, using rehearsal letters as labels to
jump to the three different middle sections, an unusual roadmap.
flattens the three verses out separately and uses no rehearsal
letters. N also flattens the verses, but retains the rehearsal
letters, which do not appear in alphabetical order due to their use as
jump-labels in KP.
mm. 5-10, 12-16 Staccato dots are already in several KP, extended per SP/V.
mm. 28-29 KP upper woodwinds break up the beaming too much, in my
opinion, reinforcing Sullivan's phrasing but obscuring the
beat-counting in this rather pedantically notated passage. The
phrasing-marks, both accents and slurs, are quite clear by themselves,
so I prefer SP/V's beaming here.
mm. 74 SP/V piano reduction differs from KPs' orchestration in some
string details, a liberty which Schirmer takes only in cases of extreme
pianistic difficulty, which does not seem to apply to this
example. I can only speculate that an alternative version of this
passage exists, either Sullivan's own or some revival's. In the
absence of further information about any such variant, and in
keeping with my goal of Kalmus compatibilty, N follows KP faithfully.
m. 118 same.
Nº 17. In a contemplative fashionUpper
strings variously double the vocal through-melody. The phrasing
for this doubling is sensible and consistent in SP/V: half-bar
pickup, plus one full bar, plus quarter-note arrival-note, all slurred
together, even when some of the notes are repeated. KP often
slurs shorter phrases, or omits pickups or arrival-notes. N
follows the SP/V model.
Nº 18. With ducal pompmm. 10 and 12: few dynamic markings in KP and none in SP/V, implying continued ff.
But maintaining that dynamic level throughout this entire passage would
be tiresome, and when this material recurs at m. 53, both KP and SP/V
are more explicit in specifying f. So N specifies f here.
m. 11 rehearsal letter "A" not in several KP.
m. 25 rehearsal letter "B" not in several KP.
mm. 27-28 These two bars are identical in all accompaniment parts
except for KP Vla, which changes from double-stop G-over-C to
G-over-Bb. SP/V does not reflect this re-voicing, appropriately
so since the f Bassoons
and brass dominate, and their notes do not change. The only other
difference between the two bars is in the melody, both vocal and
heavily doubled, whose fourth-beat note changes from Bb to C.
Sullivan frequently re-voices chords in light of changing melody-notes,
but this example is so subtle as to seem pointless. N transcribes it faithfully nonetheless. Same mm.
31-32 and 60-61.
m. 36 rehearsal letter "C" not in several KP.
m. 39 KP V2 plays F, the fifth degree of the chord, instead of D, the
third degree, to avoid dissonance with the doubled vocal melody.
m. 47 same. But in m. 41, against the same doubled vocal melody,
KP V2 has D, and the dissonance is mildly jarring. SP/V has D in
all three places, but the piano reduction does not double the melody at
all, so the dissonance is more tolerable. N changes the V2 note
in m. 41 to F, matching the other two examples.
m. 54 KP have a key change back to concert Bb here. SP/V stays in
Eb. Since the tonality here is clearly Bb, N does include the key
m. 53 rehearsal letter "D" not in several KP.
m. 64 Sloppy cutoff: eighth-note in KP Perc, V1, and Vla,
quarter-note in KP V2 and Vc/Cb. SP/V has eighth-note. To
this Editor's ear an eighth-note is an abrupt ending to this sustained,
fanfare-like passage; N changes it to a quarter-note for V1 and
Vla. Percussion, as happens frequently, is a special case:
bass-drum-and-cymbals have played only eighth-notes throughout this
piece, a convention indicating a dry attack, and this final note should
follow the same convention.
Nº 19. On the day when I was weddedRehearsal
letters in this piece are found in KP -- almost all printed, a few
handwritten as if to correct omissions in the printed parts -- but not
mm. 2-3 Kalmus parts are inconsistent whether the slur is just over the
three notes of the triplet, or whether it also includes the following
eighth-note. If only the three, it may not be a real slur, but
just part of Sullivan's indication that the three thirty-second-notes
form a triplet. (Note8 editorial policy is to suppress
slurs and brackets on triplets of beamed notes.) But a slur
over four notes would definitely be a real slur. SP/V slurs all four, and so does N. mm. 42-43 and 74-75 same.
m. 38 KP Fl1 odd jump down the octave, not found in other instruments nor in m. 74. OUT.
m. 38 KP Vla rhythmic discrepancy vs. V2 and Vc. OUT.
m. 72 Fermata is not found in SP/V, nor in KP wind parts, but is
present in all KP string parts, and is certainly part of this Editor's
Nº 20. To help unhappy commonersmm. 1-9 The vocal line to this recit. is cued in Clarinets, Horns, and strings.
mm. 44-45, 49-50 Woodwind slurs per SP/V. Same mm. 84-85, 89-90 second verse.
100 L cites early lyrics "We like an interment", and opines that the
apparent later amendment to "We enjoy..." is a improvement. I
m. 110 SP/V marks both vocal lines a piacere, "at your pleasure", an obscure form of ad lib. (Per L this marking is Schirmer's innovation.) SP/V piano accompaniment uses colle voci, and KP use colla voce (sic), which
seem to accomplish the same thing without causing pit musicians to
consult their music dictionaries. Certainly this Editor's
performance experience includes a break in the tempo here, an
opportunity for stage business in lieu of a cadenza -- but only for this
one measure. So N marks [a tempo] at m. 111.
Nº 21. I am a courtierpickup bar and m. 1 Most KP have staccato
dots on the un-slurred eighth-notes. SP/V does not. Per L,
these dots are authentic, so N extends them to Hb as well. Same
mm. 38-39 and 107-108.
mm. 6-12 See comments on Introduction m. 183 re rhythms, phrasing, and staccato
dots. The dots over the eighth-notes of eighth-note, eight-rest
pairs, such as those in m. 8, seem particularly redundant, superfluous,
and bogus. Same mm. 41-47 and 83-89, as well as more bogus dots
in some KP at mm. 31, 66, and 92.
m. 21 For some reason KP Hb is missing the arrival-note here. N supplies it. N also supplies [mf] as the destination dynamic level for the cresc. in m. 19.
mm. 77-81 In all sources, this passage is similar to, but not identical
with, the instrumental introduction at mm. 1-4, partly repeated as a
transition between the two verses at mm. 38-40, and fully repeated as
the playout at mm. 107-112. This time it's just strings (and
singers), and Sullivan modifies the rhythms, phrasing, and a few notes
to match the vocal lines.
m. 79 The cresc. hairpin to sf is found, in one form or another, in all sources.
82 KP Fls does not specify whether this passage is to be played by just
Flute 1, or by both Flutes in unison. Since the previous system
had separate staves for the two instruments, the weak implication is that
just Fl1 plays. A further clue is the oddly placed direction "a2" at m.
107, apparently specifying that the rest of the piece should be played
by both Flutes in unison, consistent with the same material in the intro and
in the first ending, mm. 38-40. So for N I marked mm. 82-107 Iº, with Fl2 joining at m. 107.
m. 83 In all sources, the rhythm of the melody is different from mm. 6
and 41. Since the orchestration is different too, and since
this time it's the dance/playout rather than doubling the voice, N leaves it that way.
m. 106 In KP the sustained Cl2 note is re-articulated here, and again
for m. 107, unlike mm. 36-37 and 72-73, which tie it across eight-plus
bars. A humane adjustment due to the Rall? Breaking up the forward motion in preparation for ending the piece? Just an error? N follows KP.
mm. 107 and 112 KP Fls has fermatas in these bars which are not found in the other parts. Rall. and rit., respectively, already give the Conductor license anyway.
Nº 22. Here is a case / Act II finale
Numbering: KP ends Nº 22 at m. 84, and calls the rest of the
opera "Act II finale" with no number. SP/V combines them into a
single Nº. 22. Since KP Nº 22 contains rehearsal letters "A",
"B", and "C", and since these three rehearsal letters also appear in
the Finale, combining the pieces causes rehearsal-letter redundancy, which SP/V avoids by
using no rehearsal letters at all. N resolves this issue by
re-labelling the rehearsal letters in mm. 1-84 as double letters "AA"
mm. 1-2 Note that SP/V's alternating-octave triplets are not a faithful
representation of the orchestration here. I suppose two-fisted
wrist staccato was deemed too difficult to play evenly at Molto vivace.
mm. 17-20 KP Cls are marked staccato throughout
this vocal-melody-doubling passage, four bars after Fgs double a
similar melody with no dots at all. So I judged the Clarinet dots
to be bogus, OUT.
mm. 28-30 KP woodwinds have staccato dots to match the pizz. strings. But woodwind players will play these detached eighth-notes plenty short anyway. OUT.
mm. 35, 39 Out of all sources, only KP Hn1 has accents here. OUT.
mm. 41-42, 45-46 SP/V has staccato dots on the right-hand eighth-notes. They seem superfluous at this tempo. OUT.
mm. 51-53 KP contain many more accents here than SP/V does, but they
make sense, especially to contrast with the articulations in mm. 55-58.
mm. 55-58 SP/V consistently has staccato dots on the off-beats, teepee-accents on the on-beats. KP consistently have all staccato. At p
dynamic there really isn't much practical difference, just a reminder
to stress the on-beats while keeping the tone light, but I like that
reminder, so N follows SP/V.
mm. 59-64 Phrasing and dynamics taken from SP/V.
mm. 71-72 L cites Gilbert's revision of Marco and Giuseppe's lyric
here, from "two-thirds" to "one-third", and also gives multiple reasons
to retain the original lyric. I concur.
m. 78 Sloppy cutoff: strings have an eighth-note, in preparation
for their fanfare. Vocal lines have a quarter-note. KP
woodwinds have a full dotted-half-note, which KP Hb ties over to an
eighth-note in m. 79. N modifies the woodwinds to match the
m. 92 Trombone soli are so
rare in Sullivan that good players aim to blend in no matter what
they're playing. N labels this one so the players know they
should dominate the ensemble here.
m. 101 KP Cl1 and Fg1, doubling the vocal melody, have an eighth-note
pickup, duplicating the one found in m. 98. But the
vocal melody does not itself include a pickup here! A vestige of
an earlier version of this passage? Perhaps Sullivan originally
specified "She" on the pickup, "will" on beat 1, and "de-(clare)" as a
melisma on beat 2, scansion which matches that in m. 103 rather
elegantly. But by setting "She" on the downbeat, the present
version improves the clarity of the plot, an important consideration
since the central conflict of the opera is not yet resolved. So
for N the pickup notes are OUT.
m. 107 Dynamic p is not found in SP/V, but is found in all five KP string parts, and makes sense.
m. 108 KP Fls are marked a2
here. In light of the analysis of m. 148 below, should this
marking be interpreted as two Flutes in unison, not Flute and Piccolo
written in unison, sounding in octaves? For N I decided on
Piccolo, inspired by the dramatic content of the plot here, as well as
the high Violin writing. mm. 125-127 same.
mm. 116-124 KP Violins are consistently slurred by half-bar. SP/V
phrasing is different and inconsistent. N uses KP's phrasing.
mm. 117-118 KP woodwind quarter-notes are marked staccato, extended to mm. 119-124 per staccato eighth-notes in SP/V, and to match pizzicato low strings.
m. 125 KP Hb has rehearsal letter "C" here. Perc has it at m. 124. Not found at all in other parts. OUT.
mm. 125-126 L is adamant that the staccato dots in SP/V m. 126 should be extended to m. 125. A technique to prevent the melody-doubling ff woodwinds from drowning out the vocal ensemble, while brass and strings are also ff? Not found in KP, OUT.
m. 127 Sloppy cutoff in KP, also in SP/V: vocals and winds have a
quarter-note, strings have an eighth-note. A convention for the
strings' arrival after two bars of subdividing into sixteenth-notes? N changes the strings to quarter-notes.
mm. 128-149 This passage is marked Più lento, but in practice it's exactly like recit. KP
string parts contain selected lyrics, but the rest of the orchestra is
left guessing about when to play the chord at m. 148. N
explicitly specifies Più lento [recit.], cues the vocal line to the entire passage in strings, and cues mm. 145-149 in all parts.
m. 137 KP upper strings cut off on beat 1, but Cello and Timpani
continue for all four beats. Unusual, but confirmed by SP/V.
m. 141 Viola should remain C-flat, not C-natural as in KP. Confirmed by SP/V.
m. 146 Viola double-stop remains F-over-C-flat, not C-natural as in KP. Confirmed by SP/V.
m. 148 KP Fls specifies Piccolo back at m. 51, reinforces that instrument choice at m. 86, and never switches back to Flute, al fine.
But several examples of harmony between the two Flute parts strongly
suggest that the lower line should be played on Flute. The first
is the tutti chord at m. 148,
which should have a top note of Bb, not E-natural, per KP V1, KP Ct1,
and SP/V. (Other examples are detailed below.) So N
switches to Flute here.
m. 148 KP Timp note F against a Gb7 chord. It doesn't appear to
be a case of just hitting the wrong drum here: this passage only
calls for the larger timp (tuned to low F), and the previous pitch of
the smaller one is C, also a dissonance with the ensemble chord.
And the part calls for exposed low F again at the very end, so retuning
to Gb for this one note is impractical. Clearly the drama of the
moment is enhanced by percussion, but did Sullivan really intend this
dissonance? (If so, it's a case unprecedented!) For N I'm
leaving it, but I think a production would be justified in substituting
BD or BD&Cym.
mm. 150-160 The triplets in the upper strings are consistently slur-2, staccato-1
in KP, consistently slur-3 in SP/V. The KP pattern is so
distinctive and so consistent that it must be authentic. I deemed
the SP/V pattern to be a pianistic simplification.
mm. 154-161 has the two Flute lines crossing in a display of
masterful orchestration, if the lower line is played on Flute. On
Piccolo, it would be a screechy mess. So still Flute in N.
m. 170 Staccato dots in KP Fgs and in SP/V extended to Cls, inspired by the eighth-note cutoff for the same instruments two bars later.
mm. 192-209 This unison passage in KP Fls is still dramatically
significant, it's supported by a high Violin 1 part, and there's plenty
of time to switch instruments before and after. So N switches to
Piccolo, although I could see merit in the opposite decision.
mm. 235-243, 251-259, 283-291, and 300-311: classic
Flutes-in-thirds-doubling-vocal-lines, similar to the same material in
Nº 1. These passages are interspersed with unison lines, which of
course would be more prominent if doubled on Piccolo. But there
are no convenient opportunities to change instruments for these unison
passages; also, I note with interest that the Violins in these passages
are not way up in the Piccolo octave, but down in the Flute octave, or
often the octave below that. This detail is consistent with
Sullivan's usual practice of treating the Act I finale as the
spectacular one, and devoting the Act II finale more to resolving the plot, reprising
his favorite tunes, and leaving 'em wanting more. So N switches
to Flute at m. 227, al fine.
mm. 268-282 All sources omit the accents which appear throughout
the same material in Nº 15, and rightly so: the lyrics here no
longer celebrate strong drink and the "wildest of dances", but instead
bid farewell to those pleasures. SP/V and KP upper strings are
marked pesente, another echo of Nº 15 and in this Editor's opinion inappropriate here, OUT. All sources re-state the prevailing f dynamic here, to hold something in reserve for later.
mm. 314-325 In this repeat of the material from m. 268, SP/V accents nearly every note, as do some KP (some explicitly, some ben marcato). As above, in this Editor's opinion these accents are inappropriate; the now-prevailing ff dynamic should provide sufficient contrast with the previous appearance, and sufficient energy to finish the opera.
mm. 334-337 KP upper wind parts have inconsistent ties and rests
against the tremolo in the upper strings and against
walking-down-the-chord in the bass instruments. SP/V is no
help: its piano reduction understandably emphasizes the tremolo
and the walking. My guess is that Sullivan wanted the winds to
cut off with the singers, so m. 334 should be tied, and m. 335 should
have an eighth-rest. Then he wanted the same chord re-articulated
and sustained throughout mm. 336-337, capped by the button in m.
338. N makes it so.