of editions of Trial by Jury
This document lists, in sometimes excruciating detail, many of the discrepancies I found between my sources as I prepared the Note8 edition of the Trial
orchestra materials. Every such discrepancy, of course,
represents an editorial problem to be resolved. When the solution
seems obvious I might not even list it, unless I'm feeling particularly
snippy about it (Kalmus parts have that effect). It's the
not-so-obvious decisions which make the editorial process interesting, and which I
hope I have documented here, clearly enough to allow conductors and
other researchers to understand my reasoning.
A production could
certainly make different decisions from the ones I have made for this
edition, and those decisions would be equally valid, provided they were
made in an informed and consistent manner, rather than an arbitrary one
-- or at least less arbitrary than some of mine! And by clearing
away generations of historical markings, I hope my edition provides a
clean canvas upon which conductors can clearly notate their own
This Note8 edition ("N") is based on the following sources:
autograph score "A": thanks to the online resources of the Morgan
Library & Museum in New York, Sullivan's autograph is now readily
available for all to study. Naturally, details written by The
Master's Own Hand get considerable weight in my editorial decisions;
but due to his extensive use of abbreviations and of idiosyncratic
notational conventions, to his well-documented
speed of composition, and to sensible adjustments made by him during
rehearsals and revivals and by others over the decades, other sources need to get
due consideration too. Also noteworthy are changes inserted "in a
later hand", some of which represent Sullivan's own revisions to his 1875 score for the 1884 revival.
- Broude Brothers score "B": the Savoy operas are fully
deserving of the meticulous scholarship which the Broude organization
is applying to them, after too many decades of neglect by the
musicological community. Particularly valuable is the Broude
editors' analysis of every scrawl, blot, and stray mark in A,
considering each one in its historical and musical context. Even
more admirable is their thorough explanation of each such case, and its
effect on the content of their edition. While I, as a practical
stage musician and a lifelong student of Sullivan's orchestration, do
not agree with every one of their decisions, I certainly understand and
respect them, and consider them to be valid alternatives to my own
decisions, especially in light of their editorial goal.
B "reflects Trial by Jury as
it was performed in the 1884 revival". N has the broader goal of
compatibility with commercially-available performing editions,
necessarily considering sensible adjustments which have made their way into the performance tradition.
- Steven Lichtenstein's annotated list of vocal score errata "L", found in the G&S Archive website.
Roster of instrumentsSullivan's
1975 orchestration called for one Flute doubling Piccolo, one Oboe, two
Clarinets, one Bassoon; two Horns, one Cornet, one Trombone;
percussion; and strings. His revisions for the 1884 revival
included an additional Cornet and Trombone, bringing the pit to the
same complement he used for every Savoy opera up until Yeomen -- except in the Flute section.
A, as revised for the 1884 revival, still calls for just one flutist,
so B does the same. But KP includes two Flute parts, and as in
the other Savoy operas, in KP only Fl2 doubles on
Piccolo. These two parts consistently play in unison or octaves,
never in the harmonies at the third or sixth which are so
characteristic (and charming) in the later operas -- not even when the
two Clarinet parts, or the two Violin parts, do play harmonies of that
description. Whoever constructed the Fl2 part treated it mostly as a reinforcement to Fl1 rather than as a separate part.
Partly because Trial is so
often presented as a curtain-raiser for another work (so a qualified
Fl2 player is likely to be on the premises anyway), N does include a
Fl2 part. A modern production, especially one striving for
authenticity, would certainly be justified in performing with only one
flutist, switching to Piccolo as directed by A (and by comments in N).
Like other Note8 editions, this one is intended to be a performing edition compatible with other widely-distributed editions.
Because I want my parts to
be usable by companies which already own popular editions of the score,
and my score to be usable with other popular editions of the parts, I have included
variants and their associated explanatory notes in both score and
parts. Presenting this information in the parts in particular,
without interfering with performing musicians' needs for legibility
and clarity, is an aspect of editorial artistry at which I hope I
have been successful.
Unlike its one-act predecessor Cox and Box, Trial does not have an Overture. We start right out with Nº 1, 24-bar intro and then the singing starts.
In A Sullivan numbers the entire passage from "I love him" to the end
as Nº 13. Other sources, including B and N, begin Nº 14 at "Oh,
Rehearsal letters and measure numbering
The Note8 edition uses the same rehearsal letters found in A, B,
and KP, which are continuous throughout the opera. When the 26
letters of the alphabet
have all been used, the other sources simply start again with A, but N uses
double letters AA, BB etc. for the second alphabet.
B and KP differ slightly in their placement of a few rehearsal
letters. In these cases N shows both, in the interests of
compatibility. KP also misplaces some rehearsal letters in
specific instrumental parts; these errors are listed below.
N numbers every measure continuously throughout the opera. Pickup
measures are not counted. B restarts its measure-numbering with
The Kalmus parts are riddled with dynamic markings, phrasing markings,
and especially articulation markings, which are not found in A, not
characteristic of Sullivan in general, and
thus inauthentic. These markings appear to be the result of
conductors' desire to micromanage the orchestra, or perhaps to adjust
for specific acoustical challenges or for specific singers'
shortcomings. In this editor's opinion, they should never have
made their way into the published materials.
The Kalmus string parts are heavily marked with inauthentic bowing indications.
Frustratingly, some of the offending articulation markings seem to have
found their way into A itself. Sullivan's autograph scores,
besides serving as the primary source for copyists extracting parts,
apparently were pressed into service as conductor's scores for
performances, both in original productions and in revivals. So
markings "in a later hand" are not unusual, and when they are clearly
distinguishable from the composer's original intention, they can
provide clues to the evolution of the work. But articulation
markings in particular (such as staccato dots, accent wedges, and
tenuto lines) do not lend themselves to handwriting analysis, making
all such markings in A suspect.
A related issue is inconsistent cutoffs. KP contains several
examples of ensemble cutoff notes with as many as three different
durations. There is no surer way to make an ensemble sound sloppy,
nor to undermine players' confidence in their parts.
Nº 1. Hark the hour
For this miniature opera, the instrumental introduction to this opening
chorus serves as a miniature Overture, setting the mood and building
anticipation. But it does not serve to introduce key
melodies: these 24 bars are not obviously related to anything
later in the opera. It's an early example of Sullivan's antipathy
toward medley Overtures.
- Four bars of ff woodwinds and strings in octaves, followed by a simple but crucial percussion comment.
- Four bars of woodwinds alone, no dynamic marking implying still ff. SP/V has p here, an understandable way for a piano reduction to achieve contrast. KP also have p, and
then some elaborate and contradictory dynamic adjustments within the
phrase, none of which are found in A. Now, like many master
composers working within the conventions of their times, Sullivan was
notorious for omitting crucial markings, sometimes relying on the
principal of obviousness. But Sullivan was also a practical stage
musician, understanding the folly of too-precious music in m. 5 of his
opera. No, in this editor's opinion, ff it is. Based on the same sources, B made the opposite decision.
- Repeat the first four bars, varying just the last note of the phrase to take a new harmonic direction.
- Another four-bar woodwind answer, still at ff.
Should the first three notes be slurred, or not? The rising
sixteenth-sixteenth-eighth motif appears in the first half of mm. 1 and
9, and also three times each in the woodwind passages, mm. 5-6 and
13-14. In A, with a single exception to each, these motifs are
UNslurred in the tutti passages, slurred in the woodwind answers --
another artful contrast between the two. N chooses to ignore the
exceptions, and to treat this pattern as a rule. Based on the same sources, B made the opposite decision.
- Finally we drop to p cresc for an eight-bar build to ff for the vocal entrance.
m. 2: In A the last two eighth-notes (in this tuttipassage)
are D#-E. KP and S P/V (and N) have E-C#, same as A has
in m. 10. Based on the same sources, B made the opposite
decision. L mentions this discrepancy but stops short of
recommending the A/B version.
m. 14: Hn1, second quarter-note: KP has concert F#, A has
D#. Both work harmonically, but F# is better counterpoint:
D# forms a parallel octave with the Flute melody. F# it is! B made the opposite decision without comment.
m. 25 unequal dynamics: Sullivan, following his customary practice, marks the Cornets, Trombones, and Percussion f against the ensemble ff.
N follows the modern practice of trusting the players of these
powerful instruments to blend tastefully with the ensemble at any dynamic level,
and thus marks all instruments ff here.
m. 51: A slurs the first two eighth-notes for (just) Oboe,
Bassoon, and Cornet 1. B extends the Bassoon slur to Trombone 2,
Cello, and Bass. N follows A exactly, noting that a true
B-down-to-D# slur is impossible on a slide trombone.
m. 85: In A, here we have the first explicit dynamic since ff
in m. 25. N reinforces that dynamic by re-stating it at m. 53,
and again at m. 83 to help prevent the strings from playing timidly.
mm. 85-92: Sullivan masterfully achieves sparse 3-part harmony
for his full string section by writing unison double-stops for the high
strings. (In A Viola is missing one of the double-stopped notes
in m. 86, simply an error in this editor's opinion.) When Violin
1 splits off to double the vocal melody, Violin 2 and Viola continue
mostly in unison.
m. 91 KP V2 D should be C#.
m. 103 KP V1 slurs the two notes, but per A this slur is bogus. mm. 121 and 138 same.
mm. 104-108 KP has Flute and Piccolo doubling the Violins/vocal
melody. Tacet in A and B (and N). mm. 122-126 and 139-147 same.
m. 105 on the second beat KP has a slur in V2 and both a grace note and
a slur in V1, all absent from A and B. mm. 124 and 140 same.
m. 111 In A, all upper strings play the same rhythm here. In KP, Violin 2 is different. Same in m. 113.
m. 115 uneven cutoff: KP has quarter-note, quarter-rest in both
Violin parts; dotted quarter, eighth-rest in the other strings. A
has dotted quarter for all.
m. 116 this Rall. is
authentic, but in A it starts on the last eighth, the syllable
"dis-(tress)". In an example of "pause inflation", modern
practice starts the Rall.
earlier, on "condole". N bows to that modern practice, partly
because tempo variations that begin on barlines are easier for
musicians counting rests.
mm. 127-132 After 126 bars of zero articulation markings in strings,
and only the broadest dynamic markings, suddenly Sullivan is
uncharacteristically explicit about swelling dynamics and portato
strings. This entire sequence is another example of his
mastery. Gilbert provided three simple, similar verses which
summarize the entire drama. Sullivan used a different melodic and
textural approach to each verse, each appropriate for its dramatic
message, each masking the simplicity of the underlying scansion, and
each culminating in the wonderful Bassoon-and-double-stopped-strings
hook. Jolly well done, young Arthur!
m. 131 KP V2 Bs should be Ds per A.
m. 133 A has colla voce. KP and SP/V have Rall. in m. 134. A rare example of Sullivan's own pause affecting more beats than ones in later materials.
m. 146 KP has more inauthentic grace notes in Cl1, V1, and V2.
Nº 1A. Is this the court
mm. 150-158 The vocal lines to this Recit. passage are cued in woodwinds, Horns, and strings.
m. 159 A has melismas in the vocal lines, matching the alternating
notes in woodwinds and strings. N follows the modern practice of
straight quarter-notes. B offers three theories for the source of this change from A, and makes the opposite decision.
m. 169 KP has arco, A and B do not. Continuing pizzicato seems like a better blend with the woodwind backbeats.
m. 176 A and B have different voicing for the mock guitar-tuning from that found in KP, and also specify pizz. B also urges omitting these four bars unless the Defendent tunes a guitar here.
Nº 2. When first my old
m. 191 KP Violin 2 D-sharps should be E-naturals. Same m. 220 second time.
mm. 194-197 KP has a mixture of slurs and staccato dots here which is
so inconsistent as to be of no use. A has no slurs at all,
staccato dots on sixteenth-notes pretty consistently, on eighth-notes
more sporadically. B has dots almost everywhere. My editorial opinion is that Sullivan wanted a
clipped tone, even by sixteenth-note standards, for the syllables
"tink-a-", and then a fuller tone for "tank", so N dots the sixteenth-notes and leaves the eighth-notes unmarked.
m. 198 In Violin 2 and Viola, A and B have the same waltz-accompaniment
backbeats as those instruments have been playing since the intro.
KP and SP/V have a different rhythm: eighth-notes on two, three,
and four (out of six) and rests elsewhere. This rhythm provides
an effective end to the waltz-accompaniment, and sets up the Rall. to
follow -- or would do so, except that Violin 1, doubling the vocal
melody, is left exposed and sounds odd. This discrepancy may be
related to the Cello/Bass rhythm in mm. 197-198: eighth-notes on
the beat in A, dotted quarters in KP and SP/V. This editor sees
merit in both versions, but the exposed Violin 1 dotted quarter is a
deal-breaker; if it were an eighth, cutting off with the other strings,
then the revision would be quite attractive, but there is no evidence
of that cutoff. So N reverts to the version in A. Same mm.
226-227 second time.
m. 200 A and B indicate that Sullivan changed the arrival note
here from an eighth to a dotted quarter. Only some of the Kalmus
string parts got the memo. Same m. 229 second time.
m. 201 rehearsal letter discrepancy: KP has "H" here, A and B have it two
bars earlier. In the interests of keeping everyone happy, N has "Broude H" and "Kalmus H". Same
m. 230 second time.
m. 204 A has cresc. "in a later hand". KP and SP/V have it too, so N has it in editorial brackets. Same m. 233 second time.
mm. 206-207 A has some instruments slurred across the barline, others
not. Closer analysis reveals that only those parts which move
stepwise are slurred, while others, including the vocal melody doubled
by Flute 1 and Violin 1, do not. B adds the slur to Fl1 but not to V1. Same mm. 235-236 second time.
mm. 206-207 B has sf
markings taken from an early vocal score, not found in A (or N).
In m. 211, B also extended accent marks (found in just two string
parts, in what may be a spurious hand) to all instruments. These
details raise the question of how emphatically dramatic, or how
tastefully gentle, Sullivan intended this passage to be. This
editor believes that, for a song intended to mimic guitar accompaniment
("tink-a-tank", not "tan-tan-tara-tzing-boom"), the kinder, gentler
reading is appropriate. Same mm. 235-236 and 240 second time.
m. 207 A has both colla voce and Rall, and both redundant markings are in Sullivan's hand. I like colla voce for the first verse and the grander Rall. for the second (m. 236). KP has a second-time fermata, but A does not; the Rall. makes it superfluous anyway.
mm. 212-213 Upper string voicing is different here from the equivalent
bars of the intro, mm. 183-184, but the difference is authentic per A.
m. 241 KP has Clarinets in unison, but per A Cl2 has a harmony note, same as mm. 208 and 237.
m. 242 KP and SP/V have L'istesso tempo.
A has nothing, which of course implies the same thing. Following
the principle that it doesn't hurt to be explicit, N puts in in
editorial brackets. Same situation at m. 261 with a redundant Allegretto marking.
m. 244 KP Violin 2 C-sharps should be C-naturals per A.
m. 255 A has suspensions in Cl2 and V2, not found in KP or SP/V.
These are similar to the suspensions in m. 253 found in all
sources. But they don't work very well with the melody, so N
mm. 261-267 The staccato dots in A appear to be authentic.
m. 267 KP has the wrong rhythm doubling the vocal melody in Cl1 and
Fg: per A and B should be eighth, sixteenth, sixteenth.
m. 268 same instruments, the slurs in KP are bogus per A and B.
m. 269 KP Clarinet 2 Ds (concert Bs) should be B-flats (concert Gs) per A.
m. 274 B notes that A has only one note for the two Trombones here,
"probably by oversight", and assigns harmless As to Tbn1. But KP
has D for both instruments, and I find it appealing thus to reinforce
the first change in bass note for six bars.
m. 281 In Oboe, Horn 2, Cello, and Bass, the first beat is two eighth-notes per A. Quarter-note per KP (and SP/V).
m. 285 Sullivan often uses beaming to indicate or reinforce
phrasing. His beaming in A here is a bit unusual, indicating --
in the melody and bass instruments only -- that the first eighth-note
ends the previous phrase, and the other two are a comment or tag.
KP missed this detail in some parts, and got it backwards in others.
mm. 290-292 The Bassoon notes in KP here are not found in A or B.
Nº 3. All hail, great judge
m. 293 KP adds a Fl2 part, to be played on Piccolo, during just the
intro and playout. In this editor's opinon, the dignity and
excruciating Britishness of this song
call for violins-reinforced-by-flutes, not
violins-dominated-by-piccolo. So N has two flutes in unison
during these instrumental passages.
mm. 293-295 In A and B, Trombones double the bass line. Not found in KP.
m. 296 wrong note: KP V2 first quarter-note should be G (same as every other instrument), not B.
mm. 296-297 B adds slurs to the melody-doubling instruments, "by
analogy with [mm. 293-294]". But what about the harmony parts,
which are also slurred in the intro but not during the singing?
No slurs in A, so none in N either. Same mm. 295-296, 303-304,
m. 299 The Horn entrance is marked f, challenging my earlier decision to keep the prevailing dynamic at ff
three bars earlier. But especially on the high note (followed by
an awkward 2-octave jump for Hn2), reminding brass players to blend,
not blast, seems like a sensible precaution.
m. 301 wrong note: KP V2 second quarter-note should be A, not G.
m. 311 The slurs in A (and B) are more-or-less faithfully presented in
KP. Sullivan consistently breaks the slurs between the two halves
of the bar, as clearly shown in the piano reduction of SP/V -- except
in Bassoon. I decided that there's no good reason to make the
Bassoon different, it's just a mistake.
m. 312 Violin 2 plays eighth-notes: rest, 5 Gs, 2 F-sharps.
But unless Sullivan intended to write a suspension into this
otherwise straightforward harmonic context, the last two Gs should be
F-sharps. They are Gs in A and KP. SP/V (and N) changed
them to F-sharps.
m. 314-315 V1 in KP is different from A for the last two eighths in m.
314 and the first of m. 315, duplicating V2 and avoiding the vocal
melody. The piano reduction in SP/V agrees with KP. N
restores the version in A.
m. 315 Cello and Bass end with a quarter-note in A and KP. SP/V
(and N) changes it to an eighth-note to match the other strings here.
m. 317 sloppy cutoff in KP: upper strings have eighth-note, Cello
and Bass have quarter-note. A is all quarter-notes.
m. 318 A colla voce seems more appropriate than KP Rall.
m. 321 In A, Clarinet 2 and Viola have the unusual rhythm
quarter, dotted-quarter, eighth, eighth, eighth -- unusual because it
violates the convention of using a tie, not a dot, to notate a pitch
which is sustained across the middle of the bar. These
instruments are doubling the chorus tenors, for whom Sullivan does use
a tie. Violin 2 doubles the same line, but switches to the chorus
alto line at the middle of the bar, so Sullivan used an eighth-rest to
break the phrase there. KP complicates the analysis by using an
eighth-rest instead of a dot. The notationally correct (and
clearer) solution is to keep the eighth-rest in V2, and to change the
dots into ties in Cl2 and Vla. m. 325 has a similar situation
which caused me to change the Clarinet 2 rhythm found in A, in the
interests of encouraging the chorus tenors here.
m. 322 KP First note in Viola should be E, not F-sharp, per A.
m. 323 Cello and Bass (in both A and KP) are marked fp, and for once this marking is not yet another variant for assorted accents, sf, sfz, etc.: the rest of the ensemble is f on the downbeat, p thereafter, and fp on this sustained note matches that profile. N adds [p] later in the bar to reinforce this interpretation. mm. 326-327 in Bass same.
mm. 334-336 KP shows Cornet 2 as tacet throughout Nº 3, but A has two
Cornet notes here. These are the only measures which Cornets and Trombones play in this
piece, while Horns, which have played throughout the piece, are tacet
here at the end.
Nº 4. Judge's songThe
Kalmus wind and percussion parts show six verses: one ending is
marked "1 to 5", and the other "6.". Cl1 also starts the bracket
for the "1 to 5" ending one bar too late,
thereby erroneously including an extra measure in the last verse.
The string parts (correctly) have four verses, then the fifth verse is
written out separately, its primary difference being the fermata in m.
In a multi-verse song, slight rhythmic variations verse-to-verse in the
vocal melody are common, to suit the scansion of the lyrics in each
verse. When instruments double that vocal melody, and their parts
are notated as repeated verses, the mismatch between the instrument's
exact repeat and a verse's variation can be sloppy and
distracting. In the present song, in m. 360 and its equivalents
in later verses, the doubling matches the vocal melody perfectly as
written, but if your Judge insists on taking liberties with the rhythm,
you may wish to adjust the rhythm in the Clarinet parts accordingly:
Many instruments have staccato dots sprinkled throughout this
piece. None of these appear in other sources. I have chosen
to treat them all as bogus.
- m. 360 "ring that looked like a"
- m. 383 "elderly, ugly"
- m. 406 "dusk, with a light be-"
- m. 429 "friends and his re-"
- m. 452 "Breach of Promise of"
mm. 357-360 A has sloppy and inconsistent staccato dots, in Clarinets
and upper strings, which I chose to treat as bogus. B made the
opposite decision, extending them to the low strings. Same mm.
380-383, 403-406, 426-429, and 450-453 in subsequent verses.
mm. 362-363 A and B have four-part harmony for this portion of the
choral response. SP/V, an early vocal score cited in B, and N
have all unison (octaves, strictly speaking). Same mm. 385-386,
408-409, 431-432, and 454-455 in subsequent verses.
mm. 364 and 366 KP V2 should play double-stops, matching Vla, per A and
B. Same mm. 377 & 379, 400 & 402, 423 & 425, and 446
& 448 in subsequent verses.
m. 448 B has [rall.] here, and [a tempo]
at m. 450, taken from an early vocal score and also found in SP/V but
not in A or KP. In this editor's opinion, the fermata in m. 449
accomplishes most of the customary last-verse slowdown here, and any
additional rubato is implied by the genre, so these markings are not necessary.
m. 449 KP V1 and V2 play on beat 1, rest on beat 2, play with fermata
on beat 3, rest on beat 4. KP Vla has rest, note, rest with
fermata, note, same as mm. 357, 380, 403, and 426 in the previous
verses. A is little help since it notates all verses as repeats,
with a fermata marked "5th verse" in a later hand. Clever
analysis in B suggests that the same later hand crossed out the pickup
following the fermata in all instruments, "a practical solution...to
the problem of ensemble after the pause." SP/V is
similar to KP Vla, and also has the low strings resting on the beat 3
fermata. For N I chose a hybrid of the the Schirmer and Broude
models, also omitting the Oboe
note on beat 3, so both the fermata and the pickup are
mm. 457-465 KP has an elaborate system of dynamic markings, apparently
intended to avoid covering the Judge's comments while supporting the
ensemble responses. Sullivan already
solves that problem by varying the density of his orchestration, so in A he just has f throughout, sempre f for the strings.
mm. 458-473 SP/V uses repeats to notate this passage, obscuring the
substantial variations in orchestral accompaniment (not to mention
dynamics) between the two phrases.
m. 461 It isn't clear why Sullivan used sempre f for most of the strings at m. 457, since they're all down to mf here. Everyone is back up to f at m. 464.
m. 462 A has a smudge on the Clarinet line which B interprets as a p dynamic marking. N uses [mf] to match the strings.
mm. 459-465 Multiple small errors in KP Viola, just sloppy copying from
A: m. 459 should be four quarters, same as m. 461, not on-beats;
m. 463 should be back-beats, not on-beats; and m. 465 should be three
quarters, not just on-beats.
mm. 466-469 For reasons explained in detail in B, parts for the
additional Cornet and Trombone were never added to A for this
passage. B adds harmony notes for those instruments, taken from 8
bars earlier. But, noting that the earlier passage is marked f, while this one is pp, I prefer KP's solution, which is Ct1 and Tbn2 only here.
mm. 466-469 More inconsistent staccato dots in A which N omits as bogus and superfluous (at dynamic pp), but which B extends to the entire orchestra.
mm. 467 and 469 KP Cl2 has G, F, E (concert key). The G works
harmonically, but A and B (and N) have F, F, E to match the chorus
m. 477 KP V2 plays an octave below V1. Unison in A and B (and N).
Nº 5. Swear thou the jury!
mm. 479-482 The vocal lines to this a capella recit. passage are cued in strings.
m. 495 KP Violin 1 first note is ambiguous: should be double-stop F over A, not F over G.
m. 507 in A Sullivan does not have a Rall. or a fermata. He achieves all the slowdown he wants by writing longer note-values. Just sayin'.
m. 510 in A and B (and N) the only instrumental part playing here is Cello. The
Bassoon and Bass notes in KP here are inauthentic.
Nº 6. Where is the Plaintiff? / Comes the broken flower
m. 513 B has cresc/dim hairpins,
not from A but from an early vocal score and "by analogy with m.
". Also found in KP and SP/V. To this editor, the two
passages appear in quite different dramatic contexts, and have quite
different orchestration, so I just don't see the need here. OUT.
mm. 513-514 KP has a part for Flute 1 here, but A does not. OUT.
m. 514 A has smudges in Violin 1 and 2 that might be double-stops F
over A, might be crossed-out double-stops leaving just F, or might just
be smudges. But no other instrument is playing the third of the
chord here. KP has just F in V1, double-stop in V2, but that
seems silly when the rest of the passage is in unison. So
double-stops in both it is. B concurs.
mm. 515-527 The vocal lines for this Recit. passage are cued in strings. The vocal line for mm. 523-527 is cued in all instruments.
mm. 530-531 KP has notes for Flute 1 and Piccolo here, but A does not. OUT.
mm. 534-535 B extended the accent-marks found in A to all
instruments. SP/V does the same, as does KP,
inconsistently. My interpretation is that the accents apply to
just the eighth-quarter-eighth rhythm, not to the melody, so N matches
A without extension.
m. 538 A does not specify whether Clarinet 2 doubles the
vocal melody along with Flute (1) and Clarinet 1. The lack of
direction implies that these secondary instruments do continue in
unison with their section principals, and B shows the two Clarinets in unison, but in similar spots in other
operas Sullivan would use just the principals. In KP, Clarinet 2
is tacet until m. 556, when it has notes of its own. This arrangement makes sense to me, so N
follows it. Same m. 584 second time.
m. 538 In the upper strings, after an explicit dim two bars earlier, instead of the expected p, A has a scrawl which B interprets as meno f. The only dynamic marking in the other instruments is p
in Bassoon, but that appears to be "in a later hand". KP's
dynamics here are so various as to be of no help. So instead of
the unsatisfying meno f here, N uses [mf]. And unlike B, N extends that marking to the winds. B marks them p, but accompanying the full women's chorus, mf seems more appropriate.
mm. 538-554 Upper string phrasing in A is inconsistent,
sometimes by bar, sometimes 2-bar phrases, frequently one part
different from the others. Many of these slur markings appear to
be in a "later hand", and so could be misguided bowings. KP and
SP/V consistently slur by bar, so N does too. B concurs. Same mm. 584-600 second time.
mm. 538-539 KP V2 doubles V1, but A has different notes for V2 here. Kalmus got it right in the second verse, mm. 584-585.
m. 540 V1 in A the first two eighth-notes are E-natural, G.
KP and SP/V have D-flat, E-natural. N uses A's pitches.
Same m. 586 second time.
m. 546 B has [cresc.], [f] at m. 550, and [dim.]
at m. 553, all taken from an early vocal score, not found in A.
This same Tremendous Swell is found in SP/V and inconsistently in
KP. I don't see the need for it; I prefer to let the inner
dynamics rise and fall with the melodic line. OUT. Same mm.
592, 596, and 599 second time.
m. 549 KP V1 Eb corrected to E-natural. Same m. 595 second time.
m. 555 This sloppy cutoff is on Sullivan: Flute has a
quarter-note, Clarinet 1 an eighth-note, and the women's chorus sings a
half-note. Getting the winds out of the way of the string fill is
a good idea, but let's do so together! N changes the Flute note
to an eighth. Same m. 601 second time.
555-556 Unlike all the gratuitous dynamic fiddliness in the preceding
passage in KP, the swell here is authentic -- in the upper strings
only. (Tasteful conductors please note: no Rall. here in any source.) Then the ensemble drops down to p, preparing for the cresc. at m. 565 to f at m. 569. Same mm. 601-602 second time.
m. 561 KP Violin 1 last note should be double-stop E-flat over B-flat, not E-flat over A. Same m. 607 second time.
mm. 569-572 Sullivan wrote ascending chromatic half-notes for Cello
here. But the other accompaniment instruments don't play complete
half-notes, leaving the Cello exposed. So in mm. 570 and 572 I
changed the Cello notes to dotted quarters, matching the Clarinets and
Horn 1. This change seems consistent with the repeated lyric
here. Same mm. 615-618 second time. Note that Bass plays a
quarter-note against Cello's half-note in m. 564, and continues this
mm. 570-572 Violin 1 takes over the noodling from Flute here. In
KP Piccolo doubles this material, the only example in the opera of the
KP Piccolo playing independently from the Flute, but I like
it. Same mm. 616-618 second time.
mm. 569-574 Some of the slurs in KP Clarinets are not found in A. Same mm. 615-620 second time.
m. 574 KP Viola should be (undivided) dotted quarter, eighth per A. Same m. 620 second time.
mm. 575-576 B has slurs for selected instruments, starting at the held
note and extending across the barline, on the evidence of some
unmatched slur-ends (after a page-turn) in A. Sullivan sometimes
includes such obvious end-of-phrase arrival-notes in his slurs, but
more often he does not, and the fermata clearly does not get cut off,
so I don't see the need. OUT. Same mm. 621-622 second time.
mm. 577-622 The Kalmus Viola part treats this second verse as a
repeat of mm. 531-576 (and thus has no rehearsal letter "T"). Other instruments have it written out
m. 578 KP Horn 1 second note should be A, not C, per A and per m. 532 first time.
m. 584 The same analysis of the dynamic marking as for m. 538 in the
first verse applies here, the vocal entrance for the second
m. 589 KP Violin 2 ambiguous first note should be B-flat, not C.
In all sources the Plaintiff sings with the women's chorus, but has her
own words, at m. 619. In A (and B) this situation begins at m. 611.
m. 625 KP Vla has an extra half-beat in this bar.
mm. 628-629 KP has Piccolo tacet for the last two notes of the piece,
and Flute 1 playing an octave lower than in A. In the interests
of making the Flute book work for either one or two players, I chose to
have the piccolo continue to double the
flute at pitch (written an octave down). If your two players
cannot consistently hit this exposed note in tune, by all means make
Nº 7. Oh, never, never, neverm. 630 Sullivan obviously intended the string portato
here to apply to the eight following measures. B makes this intention explicit with [simile], as does N. M. 646 same.
m. 633 The third eighth-note for Viola is C in KP, B-flat in A.
Although harmonic analysis suggests that C is a better choice, the
B-flat sounds fine too, perhaps an early example of a Sullivan
pedal. SP/V omits B-flat from that one chord. B has B-flat
m. 652 KP Violin 2 B-flats should be B-naturals per A.
m. 663 A has a dotted quarter-note in all active instruments. But
KP has dotted quarter in winds and Bass, quarter-note in Viola and
Cello, and dotted quarter subdivided into three eighths in Violins 1
and 2. Yikes.
m. 663 KP and SP/V have Rall., A does not. B has one, taken from an early vocal score. I don't see the need.
mm. 665-666 Following an overall p marking throughout the preceding passage, A takes the woodwinds down to pp, no marking at all for strings, implying still p. These dynamics and the authentic Rall. constitute a gentle ending to a tender, rapturous passage, and makes the fist-shaking, ff Presto furioso
at m. 667 quite abrupt. Gilbert does not specify any stage
business for the Defendant at this transition, but in some productions
he drops something noisily, or otherwise breaks the mood and motivates
the Jury's reaction.
Acting students are taught, when a script calls for a line of dialogue
to be interrupted, to prepare the missing part of that line – partly as
a practical failsafe in case the interruption is late, but mostly as
one detail of the character's elaborate "backstory". Without the Presto e furioso interruption, I envision the jurymen's lovefest ending with a high, sustained pp chord in strings, reinforced by the sparse woodwind chord which Sullivan provides in m. 667. The idea is to make the Presto e furioso a dramatic and shocking contrast.
m. 667 In A the strings are marked ff
but the winds are unmarked, implying that they continue the gentle
ending while the strings launch the new mood and tempo. KP adds
Piccolo here, utterly inappropriate for the gentle ending, but quite
appropriate two bars later.
Nº 8. May it please you / With a sense
mm. 688-692 The vocal line to this a capella recit. passage is cued in strings.
m. 698 KP Violin 2's quarter-notes should be E-flat, rest, D-flat, C, per A.
m. 699 KP Viola's double-stop on the first beat should be A-flat over C, not A-flat octaves, per A.
m. 700 Unequal dynamics: p Clarinet 1 (and later other woodwinds) vs. mf strings.
m. 700 KP Violin 1 last quarter-note should be on the fourth beat, not the third, per A.
mm. 700, 718, 733, and 746 have identical Cello/Bass lines in the four
verses. But in A the first two are un-slurred, the last two
slurred. SP/V agrees with A, as does N. KP slurs them
all. So why did Sullivan make them different? This passage
is the transition from each verse's varied texture into the refrain
-- first sung by the Counsel, then repeated by the chorus.
In verse 3, the slurred bass line contrasts with the staccato
accompaniment texture; in verse 4, with the tremolo texture.
Apparently Sullivan did not feel the same need in verses 1 or 2.
m. 702 Bassoon is marked sf in A, not found in KP or SP/V. B amends it to p sf. Then in m. 704, the melodic entrance in A is marked sf for Flute and Oboe, and sf f for Violin 1; accompaniment notes in Bassoon and Horns are also (just) sf; other accompaniment instruments are just f. Consistently just f in KP and SP/V. B amends them to f sf in the melody instruments, just f in all other instruments. And in m. 706, A has sf on beat 3 for Violin 1, with Flute and Oboe marked col, and sf
for Bassoon, but not Clarinets which play the same accompanying
rhythm. KP Violin 1 and Oboe (but not Flute) do have sf
here, the only such markings in this passage in KP, and SP/V again has
nothing. B transcribes these markings from A faithfully.
This editor's opinion is that sensible pit musicians will emphasize
these notes appropriately anyway, perhaps with more subtlety than sforzando implies to 21st-century musicians, so these sf
markings add nothing but confusion. Even though they appear to be
in Sullivan's own hand, N omits them entirely. Same mm. 720, 722,
724; 735, 737, 739; and 748, 750, 752 in subsequent verses.
m. 702 KP Viola last quarter-note should be double-stop E-natural over
D-flat, not E-natural over C. Per A, same when the phrase
recurs in mm. 720, 735, and 748.
m. 708 KP and SP/V knock the dynamic down to p
here. A and B accomplish a lighter texture by dropping instruments,
and postpone the p marking to m. 710. m. 726 same second time.
m. 716 KP Cello and Bass have notes on the fourth beat which are
not found in A or B. This bar is not a literal repeat of m. 699 in the first
verse, a fact which seems to have been lost on SP/V and on selected
m. 729 Some Kalmus parts are marked un poco agitato. Inauthentic. B is marked "with increased energy" here, taken from an early vocal score.
mm. 729-731 in A these three bars for Oboe are slurred together.
But the long slur appears to be in a different hand from the shorter
slur connecting the two notes in m. 731, so this Editor deemed the long
slur to be spurious. B includes the two nested slurs.
m. 731 The string harmonies in A and B are different from those in KP and SP/V.
m. 733 The double-stop in KP V2 is bogus per A and B. Should
be just F as in mm. 700 and 718. Same m. 746 fourth verse.
m. 741-742 Sullivan is not explicit in A about where this cresc. is going. I followed the model of mm. 732-733. B made a similar choice.
mm. 741-745 A has all double-slashed stems in all string parts, with the indication trem.
in Cello only. B interprets this notation as "modern tremolo",
and so indicates with triple-slashed stems. I concur.
m. 754 Are the staccato dots for strings in A intended to follow the "implied simile"
principle? I think so, and have made it explicit in N, but the
staccato dots in Violin 1 only at m. 762 undercut that principle.
m. 758 In A (and faithfully in B and KP) Bassoon and Cello cut off on a
quarter-note, but Horns end the phrase with a half-note. It seems
cleaner and more delicate to cut the Horns off with the others, and N
m. 758 KP and SP/V indicate a louder dynamic level not found in A
here, as does B, citing an early vocal score. B also has dim.
two bars later. In this editor's opinion, the purpose of this
dynamic innovation is to provide a piano reduction which supports the
Plaintiff's high melody; with orchestral accompaniment, the prevailing p dynamic works just fine. Give Sullivan his
understated ending here.
mm. 758-760 At first glance the phrasing here appears inconsistent,
until we realize that the ascending line is a single four-note phrase
in all instruments which play it, while the descending line is two
m. 765 rall. in a later hand
in A and B has migrated to m. 766, or sometimes m. 767, in SP/V and
KP. But the fermata in m. 765, also in a later hand in A, seems
to accomplish the composer's intention more clearly, so only the
fermata appears in N.
mm. 766-767 Violin 2 and Viola are not explicitly marked staccato here
in any source, but it's so strongly implied by the context that I made
it explicit in N. B concurs.
m. 768 sloppy cutoff in KP: everyone has an eighth-note on the
downbeat except Horns and Violin 1, which have a quarter-note.
Sullivan is not blameless here: Horns have a quarter-note in A and B,
fortunately marked pp. No one is hung out to dry by N: eighth-notes all around.
Nº 9. That she is reeling
m. 775 B adds a slur for Bassoon here, and also at m. 789, on the
evidence of a crudely drawn slur, which may be in a later hand, in A at
m. 789 (only). OUT.
m. 780 B marks the Oboe entrance p, "by analogy with [Plaintiff]", whose entrance is also marked p in A. But surely, with the strings still sawing away at mf, the Plaintiff's p marking is a vestige of Sullivan's original dynamic for this entire section of the song, also documented in B.
m. 783 KP Violins (1 and 2 play the same notes) have different rhythms from A and B.
m. 795 KP Fg has an extra measure of rest.
mm. 795-797 B makes the case that the Cornet and Trombone parts here
should be played by one instrument each, with the second joining in
unison at m. 798. I concur. KP comes close: one
Cornet, but both Trombones.
m. 804 The fermata in the Percussion part is not particularly good
modern notation, but it is clear and simple in ways that alternatives
would not be.
Nº 10. Oh, gentlemen, listenm. 805 Unequal dynamics: winds f, strings ff.
mm. 816-818 Staccato dots in A for Clarinet 1 and Bassoon are
sufficiently sloppy and inconsistent as to call their authenticity into
question, and they do not appear in KP. OUT. Same comment
for Violin 1, mm. 826 and 830. Same second time, mm. 849-851,
859, and 863. B made the opposite decision.
m. 824 A and B have rehearsal letter "C" here, two bars earlier than KP
it. In the interests of universal compatibility, N has both a
"Broude CC" and a "Kalmus CC". Same second time ("CC2"), m. 857.
mm. 825-826 Unlike KP and SP/V, A does not have Rall. / a tempo
here. A does have a fermata, in a "later hand", perhaps added by
a defenseless conductor: Sullivan did not provide any notes of
accompaniment to goad the soloist along. N recognizes this
reality with a parenthesized fermata. Same second time, mm.
m. 833 KP Viola part is just wrong. Per A, it should match m. 834. Same second time, m. 866 should match m. 867.
m. 834 In A, Bassoon and Horns are marked p against the ensemble f. But those "p"s are neater than Sullivan's usual handwriting, and Horn has bogus staccato dots too. So I used the prevailing f. Same second time, m. 867.
m. 864 Another "later hand" fermata in A, and random adjustments to
dynamics in KP, are evidence of pausing for the big plot payoff
here. After pointing out that Sullivan never contemplated such a
thing, I reluctantly provide another parenthesized fermata.
m. 877 KP Hb and V1 have a version of the playout melody which differs
other instruments: repetition of the introduction. But even
these two instruments differ in the next-to-last eighth note. N uses the version found in A and B in all instruments.
Nº 11. That seems
mm. 888-889, 892-894 The staccato dots and p
dynamic markings in A are deemed bogus for the same reasons as mm.
816-818 above. B made the opposite decision, extending the dots
"to most eighth notes not specifically exempted by slurring."
m. 900 f seems a little
loud here, and indeed KP has a variety of softer dynamic markings here,
but it's just strings, playing sparse rhythm, and most of the notes are
in the Counsel's strong range.
m. 907 Unequal dynamics: p in Horns against the prevailing f in the rest of the orchestra. But then m. 909 p in Bassoon and m. 910 p for Jury and Usher don't fit the other woodwind dynamics. B's solution is to drop everyone to p at m. 907, which would seem to undercut the enthusiasm of the Bridesmaids' lyric. SP/V has dim. at m. 909 to p at m. 911, and that works for me.
m. 911 wrong rhythm in KP Violin 2 part: should be quarter,
eighth to match Violin 1, not dotted-quarter, eighth. Clarinet 2
and Viola should be dotted-quarter, not quarter.
mm. 913-914 unlike KP and SP/V, A does not have a fermata, implying
that Sullivan wanted the tempo to continue straight into Nº 12. A
marginal notation in A says "attacca il sextette", not definite proof of an in-tempo segue, but more evidence of the composer's desire not to pause here. Note that Nº 12 begins with an a capella pickup which Sullivan did not bother to dovetail into m. 914, as he did with other obvious segues such as mm. 146-147.
m. 923 SP/V has the final note for the Defendant as C-flat, but per A it's C-natural. Good catch by L.
Nº 12. A nice dilemma
m. 917 KP Violin 2 has an indecipherable blob on the third beat. It should be an E-flat per A.
m. 921 [Colla voce] does not appear in A, but the need for it is obvious from context.
m. 921 KP Viola double-stop should be F over D per A. In the
measure the first note for Cello and Bass should be low F per A.
And the final note for Bass should be slurred into the next measure col Cello.
m. 932 again the need for an inauthentic [colla voce] is obvious.
m. 935 If your Plaintiff can execute this triplet passage without
any pauses, it will help to set the tempo for the ensemble entrance a
mm. 937-938 KP Vla is missing two bars here.
m. 943 KP Trombone 1 second quarter-note should be E-natural again, not C, per A and B. Same m. 953 second time.
m. 943 KP Cornet 2 and Viola, last note of the third-beat triplet
should be C-flat concert, not C-natural. As I note below, A is
extremely cluttered and difficult to decipher in this passage, so I
relied on SP/V and the vocal harmonies to determine the correct
harmony. Also KP Bass, last note should be C, not G, per A and
B. Same m. 953 second time.
m. 944 A and B have ff
here, apparently for reinforcement since we already reached that
dynamic level in m. 941. To prevent confusion, N omits the
redundant marking here. Same m. 954 second time.
mm. 944-945 Apparently Sullivan ruled in his barlines in A before
considering how complex the music is here, leading to some very
cluttered score pages. What few phrasing clues he provides are
contradictory, but the consensus seems to be slurring by
half-bars. That approach seems more like bowing than phrasing,
and if interpreted too literally, leaves the arrival-note of each
phrase disconnected. But in this complex material, there's a
practical advantage to phrasing which emphasizes each major beat,
sacrificing melodic flow for clarity of meter. Same mm. 954-955
m. 955 A in a "later hand" has fermata 2nd time. Fortunately,
this misguided gilding-of-the-lily did not make its way into the other
m. 957 KP Perc has (the second) rehearsal letter "G" ("GG" in N) one bar early. KP Cornet 1 same.
mm. 957, 959 Inconsistent cutoffs in the vocal lines in A carry into
the instrumental parts, and selectively into the other sources.
Longer note-values for the Foreman/chorus bass melody are consistent
with mm. 956 and 958, but then in m. 959 the entire chorus cuts off
with an eighth-note, but the Foreman hangs over with a quarter-note
again. N's solution is to keep m. 957 as it is, but to make it a
consistent eighth-note in m. 959, thus setting up "that calls for all" and the socko finish.
mm. 959-960 The accent marks for Clarinets here are authentic per A, B,
and KP. Apparently Sullivan felt the need to hustle the singers
Nº 13. I love him
mm. 963-964 cresc. and sf markings in B are from an early vocal score, not from A. OUT.
mm. 963-965 Piccolo is tacet in KP, so the decision to add Piccolo here is all mine.
mm. 963-964 KP Vla wrong notes: in m. 963 double-stop F# over C#
should be G over C#; in . 964 double-stop G over D should be G over B,
mm. 970-973 and
977-981 A's phrasing for the woodwind half-notes is inconsistent in
these similar phrases. For N I made informed guesses. mm.
988-991 and 995-999 second time don't give any more clues. B found similar solutions.
m. 978 KP V2's last two double-stops should be G# over B, not A over
B. Same m. 996 second time, when the error is especially jarring
because Violin 1 has it right.
m. 980 B has [cresc.] taken from an early vocal score, also found in KP, but not found in A. This cresc. makes the f at m. 982 less abrupt, so it's in N. This [cresc.] is not in the second verse (m. 998) in any source, and in A the f
is postponed until a bar later than the first-verse pattern.
Certainly the transitions out of these passages are different:
the first verse goes right into the vamp for the second, but the second
verse leads into a long, complex, loud passage for the two soloists,
full chorus, and full orchestra. But ending the second verse
quietly is at odds with the violence of some of Edwin's lyrics, and
indeed Angelina's reply is explicitly f.
Faced with this mixed message from Sullivan, B kept things simple by
not changing the string section's dynamic until m. 1001, and N does the
m. 996 Violins 1
and 2 play the same part here -- double-stopped backbeats -- but
in this bar in KP the parts differ in a way which can't both be
right. Another in m. 999.
m. 1000 KP V1 part is missing half a beat. It needs another eighth-rest before the final pickup note per A.
m. 1000 KP V2 and Vla should be in unison, but Vla moves from D# to E
on beat 2, V2 not until beat 3. Per A Vla has it right.
mm. 1001-1002 A V1 has staccato dots, also applicable to Piccolo, which
to this editor's eye may not be in Sullivan's hand. B uses simile
to extend these markings through m. 1008. KP V1 has inconsistent
dots and slurs, some of which might be interpreted as portato, not
staccato; KP Flute and Piccolo parts are unmarked. N leaves all
mm. 1001-1009 B makes a case for the Cornet and Trombone lines to be played p by one player each. KP has one p Cornet but two mf
Trombones, not much help. One the principle that these low notes
won't make any difference if they can't be heard, N has both players
marked f (matching the ensemble) on each part.
m. 1002 Some Kalmus parts are marked stringendo here, as does SP/V. KP again at m. 1006. Not in A or B, so inauthentic.
mm. 1003-1004 V2 and Vla play the same part here -- double-stopped
backbeats -- but in these bars in KP the parts clash, m'lord, they
clash. The same harmonies recur in mm. 1007-1008, correctly.
m. 1009 Rehearsal letter "K" ("KK" in N) appears in KP but not in A or B.
m. 1009 KP Cl2 has two eighth-notes C, Eb. Per A both should be Eb.
m. 1009 A V2 and Vla have (possibly bogus) staccato dots, explicitly extended by B through m. 1012. Not in KP. OUT.
mm. 1009-1010 A Cls and Hns have (possibly bogus) staccato dots on the
last two eighth-notes, extended by B through m. 1012 with simile. Not in KP. OUT.
m. 1010 A has cresc. in strings which B extends to the full orchestra. Also in SP/V and inconsistently in KP. N includes it.
m. 1014 The fermata here is authentic.
m. 1022 The fermata here, although not found in SP/V and only in
selected Kalmus parts, is in Sullivan's own hand in A and in B, and thus is
m. 1025 A Vc and Cb have (possibly bogus) staccato dots, extended by B through at least m. 1028 with simile. Not in KP. OUT.
m. 1025 Another SP/V error caught by L: Counsel's first note should be D, not G, per A.
m. 1029 KP Oboe is marked f against the prevailing p. No other source has this marking, nor any justification for it. So in N it's [p].
mm. 1030 A Clarinet 1 and Bassoon have (possibly bogus) staccato dots which B extends to Oboe in m. 1029. Not in KP. OUT.
mm. 1033-1034 A does not specify Flute, implying that the player
should continue on Piccolo here. But B clearly calls for Flute
(without explanation) and KP calls for just Flute, no Piccolo. I concur with this
tasteful decision, made independently by musicians several generations
m. 1035 A has "Meno Mosso"
a later hand. Not found in other sources; mentioned by B in their
Critical Apparatus, but not incorporated into their score. For N
it, but if your Judge prefers to deliver these lines more slowly,
here's some justification. To this editor's taste, there's no
need to dwell on these rather forgettable lyrics, which just serve to
set up the payoff at m. 1045-1048, already marked Recit.
m. 1035 A V1 has (possibly bogus) staccato dots, explicitly extended by B through m. 1041. Not in KP. OUT.
m. 1035-1048 SP/V has an explicit key change, notating this
passage in B-flat concert. A, B, and KP keep the G-major key
signature and use extensive accidentals. The explicit key change
seems clearer, so N uses it too.
mm. 1035-1045 KP V1 has the melody doubled an octave higher than A and B
do. Down in the original octave it's still an octave higher
than the Judge, so it won't drown him out, and it blends better with
the other strings.
m. 1041 KP V1 has two quarter-notes in the first half of the bar; A and B have two eighth-note, eighth-rest pairs.
m. 1042 KP V1 has quarter-note, quarter-rest in the first half of the bar; A and B have two eighth-note, eighth-rest pairs.
m. 1043 A and B have (possibly bogus) staccato dots in strings. Not in KP. OUT.
m. 1043 KP V1 has quarter-note, eight-rest, eighth-note in the last
half of the bar. A and B have dotted-quarter-note, eighth-note.
mm. 1045-1047 Marked Recit. in
A "in a later hand" and in SP/V. This marking seems both clearer
and more flexible than the extensive and inconsistent fermatas in A and
KP. In N the vocal line to this 3-bar passage is cued in all
parts. And unlike the other sources, N cancels the Recit. at m. 1048 with a tempo.
m. 1047 In changing the key signature as described above, SP/V
introduced an error: Viola explicitly has B-natural in A and KP,
but Schirmer implies B-flat.
Nº 14. Oh, joy unboundedm.
1052 A does not indicate an instrument change for the Flute player,
implying Piccolo, confirmed by B. Thus the Plaintiff's melody
here is doubled by Clarinet 1 at pitch, and by Piccolo two octaves
higher. Sullivan usually reserves this sort of thing for comic
effect, hornpipes and such; for this first statement of the musical
theme of the Finale, Flute would be more appropriate. And,
indeed, KP uses Flute here. With very little hesitation, N does
1052-1060 In A, staccato dots are sprinkled over selected eighth-note
pairs in the Flute 1, Clarinet 1, and Bassoon melody-doubling lines,
seemingly at random. A closer look suggests that these dots may
be related to the lyrics. B extends the dots to m. 1058, which
has at best very faint dots in A, and to m. 1055, where A does not have
them at all. KP does not have any dots at all. N follows A
faithfully. When the full ensemble takes up the
melody starting at m. 1069, Sullivan has no more need for staccato.
1060 Although Bassoon has quarter-notes in A, B, and KP, N makes them
eighth note-eighth rest pairs to match m. 1068. At mm. 1076 and
1084 it's back to quarter-notes, befitting the full-ensemble sound
mm. 1064-1065 A has sloppily-drawn cresc. hairpins, in upper strings only, against the Bassoon's entrance, which is sloppily marked p. B incorporates these markings, and further marks the strings down to p, immediately following the crescendo from the prevailing mf. N, like KP and SP/V, ignores these markings and lets the prevailing mf continue.
mm. 1069 and 1070 KP Vla first two notes should both be B-sharp, not
B-natural, A-natural, per A. Same mm. 1077-1078 second time.
m. 1072 Sloppy cutoff in A, B, and KP: Clarinets, Bassoon, and Cornets
have dotted quarter, everyone else has just a quarter. SP/V has a
consistent quarter, and N does the same. Same m. 1080 second time.
m. 1072 V2 first note is double-stop A over B, in both A and KP.
But the A clashes with the G# in other instruments, so N (and SP/V)
corrects it to G#. Same m. 1080 second time.
m. 1075 KP Cornet 1 and Viola parts have rehearsal letter "O" one bar early.
m. 1075 After three bars of p, A returns the dynamic to f
in Cello, Bass, and vocal lines only. B, and SP/V, and some
Kalmus parts extend this dynamic to the full ensemble. Perhaps
Sullivan was conflicted about how hard to nail the "And a good judge,
too!" tag line: unlike its appearance earlier in the opera, here
the vocal lines lie quite low, and over half the wind instruments are
tacet. So for dramatic contrast with the unambiguously loud
passages to come, N ignores the f markings, and leaves the end of the phrase p. Same m. 1083 second time. N does apply the f markings from A to the string parts at m. 1085.
m. 1084 A has an eighth-note pickup for the Judge against a quarter-note
pickup for Cornet 1. KP and SP/V, between them, have the
opposite. It seems like they should just be the same, and a
quarter-note is consistent with similar phrases here and elsewhere in
the opera. B made the same decision.
m. 1085 B moved rehearsal letter "O" one bar later. They mention in
the notes that they did so, mixed in with their good reasons for
splitting the previous bar into first and second endings. But
rehearsal letters are solemn things, and editors who choose to move
them introduce incompatibilities with earlier editions. So N does not
contain any accommodation for this move, other than the present note.
m. 1085 KP Horn part has rehearsal letter "O" one bar late.
m. 1085 A Cornet 1 has staccato dots which appear bogus. B
extends them to all instruments playing the same rhythm, here and in m.
1087. Not in KP. OUT.
m. 1086 All instruments except V2 and Vla have rests on beat 4, during
the Judge's pickup note. It's that way in A, B, and KP, but the string notes just
seem sloppy, so OUT. Same m. 1094 for just V2.
mm. 1093-1096 A clearly calls for the orchestration from mm. 1085-1088
to be repeated here, and B does so faithfully. But KP only has
Clarinets, Horns, and strings here: the copyist either misread
Sullivan's shorthand, or decided that fewer instruments were needed
here. N restores Sullivan's full orchestral forces.
m. 1095 KP rehearsal letter "P" is not found in A or B, included in N (as "PP") for compatibility.
m. 1097 KP Ct1, Ct2, and Tbn1 part have rehearsal letter "Q" which does not appear in other parts, nor in any other source.
m. 1099 KP Tbn1 part has rehearsal letter "R" in the wrong place. It should be at m. 1101.
m. 1101 KP rehearsal letter "R" is not found in A or B, included in N (as "RR") for compatibility.
m. 1104 KP Tbn1 has quarter-notes E and D. Both should be D per A.